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Opegraphaceae template_01

Data Set Maintenance: Data set template, authentic, compiled, and standard item. Data set author(s): Egea J. M. & Torrente P. Data set not to be published after submission @EXCL@ to be published after submission; -.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted. Taxonomic rank: species. Gymnographoidea @EXCL@ Dichosporidium @EXCL@ Mazosia @EXCL@ Perigrapha @EXCL@ Sagenidiopsis @EXCL@ Bactrospora @EXCL@ Cresponea @EXCL@ Enterographa @EXCL@ Lecanactis @EXCL@ Lecanographa @EXCL@ Llimonaea @EXCL@ Opegrapha @EXCL@ Sclerophyton. Synonyms:-; Opegraphaceae Stizenb. (1862) @EXCL@ genus of unknown placement (incertae sedis); family of unknown placement (incertae sedis); Arthoniales.

Type Information: Type:-; protologue:-; type specimen label data: x.

Taxonomic Literature: Taxonomic notes:-. -.

Biogeography: Continent: Africa, Antarctica, Asia-Temperate, Australasia, Europe, Northern America, Southern America, Pacific, and Asia-Tropical. Checklist records: Iberic Peninsula.

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized or lichenicolous, terricolous, bryophytic, lignicolous, or corticolous, endosubstratic or episubstratic; growing sun-exposed, partially shaded, or fully shaded, under conditions which are dry, moist, or wet; substrate non-calciferous or calciferous. Host or Phorophyte Taxonomy: -.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont absent or present, cyanobacterial, chlorococcal, and trentepohlioid.

Thallus: Indistinct or crustose, not subdivided parts, leprose, granular, rimose, or areolate (primarily areolate); separate thallus parts thin or thick, (0)-0-0-0-(0) mm thick. Thallus Outline: Soon disappearing or persistent, vestigial to pronounced, but not forming cushions. Upper Surface: Grey, yellow, white, grey-green, grey-yellow, grey-brown, grey-red, pale grey, olive, brownish yellow, or brownish red, smooth or rough, pulverulaceous; special structures absent or present:; epruinose or pruinose, pruina greenish, yellowish, reddish, or whitish; without hairs or hairy; not sorediate or sorediate, soralia isolated, not confluent with other soralia or confluent, but not fusing.

Upper Cortex: Absent or present; 0 % of thallus width, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high. Medulla: Iodine reaction in Lugol's solution negative or in Lugol's solution positive, not different with or without KOH pre-treatment (euamyloid) or reacting violet-red without and distinctly blue with KOH pre-treatment (hemiamyloid), weakly reacting or strongly reacting, reacting I + blue, I + violet, I + red, or I + reddish yellow.

Reproduction Strategy: Only known as sterile, asexually reproducing form or with sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Apothecioid, perithecioid, or cleistothecioid, orbicular, irregular, linear, or stellate, forming independently from the host thallus or mycelium or inside the thallus or mycelium of the host, within the ascocarp margin of the host or within the ascocarp disks of the host, not emerging, becoming adnate to soon sessile, not constricted, slightly constricted, or strongly constricted at the base, sparse, moderately abundant, or abundant, pseudostromatic or stromatic, (0)-0-0-0-(0) mm in diam.. Wall: Not carbonized, carbonized only in parts, carbonized around the ostiole, lacking a clypeus, or with a carbonized black clypeus around the ostiole, not fused or fused. Margin: Crenulate or granulose, smooth, persistent or excluded, indistinct to prominent, black, green, yellow, brown, red, pale grey, brownish yellow, brownish red, or pale brown, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide, epruinose, slightly pruinose, or distinctly pruinose; with surface structures or without surface structures surface structures; external filaments absent or present. Disk: Urceolate to plane or strongly convex or weakly convex, black, brown, pale brown, or pink (rosé), not exposed or fully exposed, epruinose or pruinose, pruina scarce or abundant, white, yellow greenish, green, yellow, red, brownish red, or pale grey. Exciple: Paraplectenchymatous, hyphae radiating outwards, intricately interwoven, with no predominant orientation, or not easily discerned; not carbonized or carbonized, black, grey, green, white, olive, brownish yellow, brownish red, or pale brown, not inspersed with crystals or inspersed with crystals. Amphithecium (thalline excipulum): Photobiont absent, sparse, or abundant. Amphithecial Cortex: Absent or present, indistinct or distinctly developed. Periphyses: Absent or present. Episamma: Without episamma or with episamma, insoluble in KOH or soluble in KOH. Epithecium: Without epithecium or with epithecium, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high; apical cells not swollen, slightly swollen, or distinctly swollen, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide, surrounded by a diffuse pigment or with a pigment cap, olive, brown, hyaline, dark brown, brownish red, or pale brown. Hymenium: Mazaedioid, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high, white, lemon (citrine), or pale brown, iodine reaction: Lugol’s negative or Lugol’s positive, not hemiamyloid or hemiamyloid. Interascal Hyphae: Absent or present, scarcely branched to distinctly branched, not or scarcely anastomosed to distinctly anastomosed; cells (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide. Subhymenium: (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high; brown, white, brownish red, pale grey, or pale brown. Hypothecium: (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high, black, grey, green, white, olive, brownish yellow, brownish red, or pale brown, pigment homogenously distributed throughout or not homogenously distributed.

Asci: Globose, broadly clavate, clavate, narrowly clavate, or cylindrical, not stipitate, indistinctly stipitate, or distinctly stipitate, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm long, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide; tholus not thickened or thickened, not amyloid or amyloid, hemiamyloid or euamyloid, in Lugol's Solution + red, in Lugol's Solution + light blue, or in Lugol's Solution + dark blue, with amyloid cap or with amyloid tube; ocular chamber absent or present; indistinct, narrow, or broad; dehiscence prototunicate, lecanoralean, unitunicate, verrucarial, or bitunicate; endoascus not hemiamyloid, with a hemiamyloid inner layer, or hemiamyloid throughout.

Ascospores: c. 4 to c. 8 per ascus, globose, broadly ellipsoid, ellipsoid, oblong, cylindrical, oblong-obtuse, ovoid, curved, reniform, semilunate, clavate, allantoid, fusiform, filiform, irregular, or bifusiform (incl. biclavate), (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm long, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide, obtuse or aciculate; septa absent or present, (0)-0-0-0-(0)-transversally septate; lumina of equal size, apically enlarged, constricted at the centre, or apically and basally tapering; wall thin or thick, distinctly differentiated into primary and secondary wall, not constricted where the septum meets the spore wall or laterally constricted where the septum meets the spore wall, remaining hyaline or becoming pigmented, dark brown, middle brown, hyaline, or pale brown, not ornamented or ornamented, indistinctly halonate, i.e., mucilaginous sheath absent or thin or distinctly halonate, i.e., with a thick mucilaginous sheath.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present, pycnidial, hyphomycetous, hyphophorous, or campylidial, sparse, moderately abundant, or strongly abundant, immersed to stipitate, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm long, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide.

Pycnidia: Globular, subglobular, or pyriform, unilocular or plurilocular; wall indistinct or distinct, brown, hyaline, dark brown, or pale brown; ostiole: black, brown, or brownish red. Conidia: Globose, ellipsoid, bacilliform, curved, reniform, sigmoid, fusiform, or filiform; microconidial or macroconidial, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm long, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide; aseptate or septate, (0)-0-0-0-(0)-septate; cell wall hyaline or pigmented.

Secondary Metabolites: Not detected or present, 2'-O-demethylpsoromic acid, arthoniaic acid, arthonin, arthothelin (2,4,5-trichloronorlichexanthone), atranorin, chiodectonic acid, confluentic acid, connorstictic acid, erythrin, gyrophoric acid, lecanoric acid, lepraric acid, norstictic acid, pannaric acid, perlatolic acid, protocetraric acid, psoromic acid, roccellic acid, schizopeltic acid, and skyrin, of the following substance class(es): orcinol depsides, orcinol depsidones, ß-orcinol depsides, ß-orcinol depsidones, (higher) aliphatic acids, (tri-)terpenoids, benzyl esters, (anthra-)quinones, secalonic acids, amino acid derivatives, pulvinic acid derivatives, diphenyl ethers, xanthones, dibenzofurans [and usnic acids], and chromones, metabolite(s) of unresolved identity: absent or present. Calcium oxalate crystals: absent or present.

Spot Tests: Absent or present reactions. Upper surface: K – (negative), + deep yellow, + yellow changing to red, or + red, C –, + bright yellow, or + red, KC –, + deep yellow, + yellow changing to red, or + red, PD –, + yellow, + red, or + orange; cortex: KC –, + deep yellow, + yellow changing to red, or + red, C –, + bright yellow (citrine, lemon), or + red, KC –, + deep yellow, + yellow changing to red, or + red, PD –, + yellow, + red, or + orange; medulla: K –, + yellow, + yellow changing to red, or + red, C –, + bright yellow (citrine, lemon), or + red, KC –, + yellow, + yellow changing to red, or + red, PD –, + deep yellow, + red, or + orange; ascocarp margin (in section): K –, + red, or + green. Consistency of K-reactive pigments amorphous, minutely granular, coarsely granular, or crystallized.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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