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Rinodina confragosa (Ach.) Körb.

Data Set Maintenance: Data set compiled (from Sheard manuscript for Sonoran Desert Flora Vol. 2) and standard item. Data set author(s): Bungartz F. Data set not to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted. Taxonomic rank: species. Currently accepted name Rinodina confragosa (Ach.) Koerber. Rinodina. Physciaceae Zahlbr. (1898); Lecanorineae; Lecanorales.

Type Information: Basionym: Parmelia confragosa (Ach.). Type: Rinodina confragosa (Ach.) Koerber.

Taxonomic Literature: Syst. Lich. German. 125 (1855).

Biogeography: Boreal; montane, upper montane, subalpine, and alpine. Continent: Africa, Australasia, Europe, and Northern America. Checklist records: Germany, Great Britain, Mexico, Sonoran Desert, and United States and Canada (continental).

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized; episubstratic; growing partially shaded or fully shaded; under conditions which are moist; substrate non-calciferous (silicious and basalt).

Thallus: Crustose, subdivided into main (areoles) parts, areolate (primarily areolate); lobes angular at the front; plane (sometimes rugose); separate thallus parts thin to thick. Thallus Size and Differentiation: Small; .5-2 cm in diameter. Thallus Outline: Orbicular; simple (effuse) or sometimes fimbriate; indistinct or rarely distinct; developed as prothallus; rarely persistent; black. Upper Surface: White or pale grey (to ochraceous), matt, smooth; not isidate; not sorediate. Lower Surface: Attached by the whole lower surface.

Upper Cortex: Present.

Reproduction Strategy: With sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Apothecioid, orbicular, forming all across the thallus surface, soon sessile, moderately abundant, small, .7-1-(1.5) mm in diam.. Margin: Lecanorine, smooth, persistent, prominent, 85-115 µm wide; sometimes with a thin, inner rim visible between disk and thalline margin (narrow, if present). Disk: Plane or weakly convex (becoming slightly); black; epruinose. Exciple: White; inspersed with crystals. Parathecium (proper excipulum): Broad (expanding to 15-25 µm above), 5-10 µm wide, white. Amphithecium (thalline excipulum): Present; 80-90 µm wide, inspersed with crystals, crystals small (atranorin), abundant (atranorin), dissolving in 10% KOH (atranorin); photobiont sparse or abundant. Lower Amphithecium: Prosoplectenchymatous (columnar hyphae), of anticlinal (columnar hyphae) hyphae. Amphithecial Cortex: Present; 10-20 µm wide, 30-50 µm wide at the base; inner cortical layer white. Epithecium: Apical cells spathulate, brownish red. Hymenium: 80-90 µm high; white; not inspers; iodine reaction: Lugol’s positive. Interascal Hyphae: Distinctly branched, not or scarcely anastomosed. Hypothecium: 40-70 µm high; white; not inspers.

Asci: Clavate or narrowly clavate; 50-60 µm long, 16-17 µm wide; dehiscence lecanoralean.

Ascospores: Physcia-type, c. 8 per ascus, spores 8 per ascus, ellipsoid, (16.8)-19.1-19.6-20.1-(22.4) µm long, (8)-9.2-9.5-9.8-(11) µm wide; septa present; transversally septate; 1-transversally septate; forming early during spore ontogeny (Physciaceae-type A); wall apically thickened, subapically not thickened, thickened at the septum, becoming pigmented, middle brown, ornamented.

Conidiomata: Present.

Conidia: Bacilliform; 4-5.5 µm long; 1-1.5 µm wide.

Secondary Metabolites: Present; only in the upper part of the cortex (atranorin & chloroatranorin) or throughout the thallus medulla (zeorin), atranorin, chloroatranorin, or hopane-6a,22-diol.

Spot Tests: Upper surface: K + deep yellow, C –, KC –, PD – or + yellow (faint); cortex: KC + deep yellow, –, PD – or + yellow (faint); medulla: K – C –, KC –, PD –.

UV-Fluorescence: Upper thallus surface – (negative).

(report generated 13.Nov.2007)

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