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Physciaceae template_02a

Data Set Maintenance: Data set template, compiled, and standard item. Data set author(s): Nash T.H. Data set reviewer(s): Nash T.H.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted. Taxonomic rank: subspecies @EXCL@ variety @EXCL@ form @EXCL@ species. Synonyms: x; Physciaceae Zahlbr. (1898); Lecanorales.

Type Information: Type: x; protologue: x; type specimen label data: x.

Taxonomic Literature: Taxonomic notes: x. X.

Biogeography: Northern hemispheric; holarctic, arctic, subarctic, boreal, Mediterranean, subtropical, pantropical, neotropical, palaeotropic, subantarctic, antarctic, and cosmopolitan; coastal, colline, submontane, montane, upper montane, subalpine, and alpine. Continent: Africa, Antarctica, Asia-Temperate, Australasia, Europe, Northern America, Southern America, Pacific, and Asia-Tropical. Checklist records: Mexico, Sonoran Desert, and United States and Canada (continental).

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized or lichenicolous; terricolous, bryophytic, lignicolous, corticolous, or saxicolous; endosubstratic or episubstratic; growing sun-exposed, partially shaded, or fully shaded; under conditions which are dry, moist, or wet; substrate non-calciferous or calciferous. Host or Phorophyte Taxonomy: Aspicilia, Dimelaena, Lecanora, and Rhizocarpon.

Thallus: Indistinct, crustose, foliose, or fruticose, not subdivided or subdivided into main parts, isotomic-dichotomous, subdichotomous, or irregular, leprose, squamulose, placodioid, subfruticose, granular, rimose, or areolate (primarily areolate), subsquamulose, areoles dispersed, continuous throughout, dispersed along the periphery, continuous in the centre, or dispersed throughout and distinctly seperate, lobed; lobes elongate or linear, horizontal, ascending, or imbricate; angular or rounded at the front; concave, subconcave, plane, subconvex, or convex; pendulous, subpendulous, or erect; branches terete, applanate (moderately flattened), or subterete; bifacial or unifacial; not imbricate or imbricate; separate thallus parts short or long, narrow or wide; (0)-0-0-0-(0) mm wide; thin or thick; (0)-0-0-0-(0) mm thick. Thallus Size and Differentiation: Very small, small, or medium-sized; (0)-0-0-0-(0) cm in diameter; apex rounded or truncate. Thallus Outline: Irregular or orbicular; simple, zonate, lobed, or fimbriate; indistinct or distinct; margin crenate, dentate, laciniate, phyllidiate, or lobulate; down-turned, levelled, or up-turned; developed as prothallus or developed as hypothallus; soon disappearing or persistent; black, grey, brown, or white. Upper Surface: Grey, brown, grey-blue, grey-green, grey-yellow, grey-brown, grey-red, pale grey, olive, brownish yellow, brownish red, or pale brown, glossy (shiny), vitreous, or matt, smooth or rough, byssoid or pulverulaceous; immaculate or maculate; maculae punctiform, orbicular, linear, or irregular; epruinose or pruinose; pruina scarce or abundant; greyish, greenish, or whitish; continuous or patchy, in the centre or at periphery; eciliate or ciliate; cilia spinulous or slender; without hairs or hairy; hairs marginal or laminal, on thallus lobes or branches; not isidate or isidiate; isidia laminal, submarginal or marginal, cylindrical, spathulate, globular, clavate, or pustular, not ramified or ramified, sparse, coralloid, or moderate; not sorediate or sorediate; soralia yellow, white, grey-yellow, lemon (citrine), pale grey, pale blue, or pale green, central, laminal, subperipheral, or peripheral, subapical or terminal, maculiform, labriform, or ear-shaped, erose, punctiform, irregular, or linear, isolated, not confluent with other soralia, confluent, but not fusing, or fusing, isidiate, soredia coarse or farinose; not blastidiate or blastidiate; not schizidiate or schizidiate; not lobulate or lobulate. Lower Surface: Absent or present, black, grey, yellow, brown, white, grey-blue, grey-green, grey-yellow, brownish yellow, brownish red, pale brown, pale grey, pale green, or lemon (citrine), firmly attached or loosely attached attached; attached by the whole lower surface, attached by holdfasts, or not attached, thallus vagrant; not wrinkled or wrinkled, wrinkles central or peripheral; not rhizinate or rhizinate; rhizines central or peripheral, sparse, moderately abundant, or abundant, black, grey, brown, pale grey, or pale brown, irregularly branched, dichotomously branched, squarrosely branched, or sparsely furcate; not sorediate or sorediate; not tomentose or tomentose.

Upper Cortex: Absent or present; (0)-0-0-0-(0) % of thallus width; (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high; pigmented at the outside or pigmented inside; outer cortical layer prosoplectenchymatous, paraplectenchymatous, or scleroplectenchymatous; inner cortical layer prosoplectenchymatous, paraplectenchymatous, or scleroplectenchymatous. Photobiont Layer: Single-layered or multi-layered. Medulla: (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm thick, yellow, red, white, lemon (citrine), or orange, compact, dense, loose, or very loose, becoming hollow; forming several bundles or forming a compact mass. Lower Cortex: (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm thick.

Ascocarps: Orbicular or irregular, forming in the thallus centre, all across the thallus surface, close to the margin, not the thallus centre, or directly at the thallus margin, close to the the tip of the thallus parts or directly at the tip of the thallus parts, not emerging, becoming adnate to substipitate, not constricted, slightly constricted, or strongly constricted at the base, sparse, moderately abundant, or abundant, (0)-0-0-0-(0) mm in diam.. Margin: Lecanorine or lecideine/biatorine, crenulate, granulose, verruculose, verrucose, or scabrose, smooth, persistent or excluded, indistinct to prominent, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide; without a thin rim between disk and thalline margin or with a thin, inner rim visible between disk and thalline margin; brighter than the thalline margin, concolourous with the thalline margin, or darker than the thalline margin; sorediate; not isidiate or isidiate; not ciliate or ciliate; not hirsute or hirsute. Disk: Urceolate to weakly convex; black, brown, grey-blue, grey-brown, or brownish blue; epruinose or pruinose, pruina scarce or abundant, white, yellow greenish, or pale grey. Exciple: Carbonized; orange, dark blue, yellow, grey-yellow, brownish blue, dark yellow, dark green, brown, dark brown, lime green, grey-blue, pale blue, blue, aeruginose, olive, grey-green, green, dark red, violet, pale brown, white, dark grey, black, red, pink (rosé), grey-red, grey, lemon (citrine), grey-brown, brownish yellow, brownish red, pale grey, or pale green; not inspersed with crystals or inspersed with crystals. Parathecium (proper excipulum): Broad or narrow, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide, paraplectenchymatous or prosoplectenchymatous, strongly glutinized, grey-green, brownish yellow, lime green, dark yellow, pale grey, brown, pale brown, grey-red, dark brown, grey-yellow, orange, grey, dark grey, black, red, pink (rosé), grey-brown, dark green, brownish red, violet, dark red, green, pale green, aeruginose, olive, lemon (citrine), blue, white, pale blue, grey-blue, brownish blue, dark blue, or yellow, strongly glutinized, not inspersed with crystals or inspersed with crystals, not dissolving in 10% KOH or dissolving in 10% KOH. Amphithecium (thalline excipulum): Absent or present; (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide, not inspers or inspersed with crystals, crystals small, abundant, not dissolving in 10% KOH or dissolving in 10% KOH; photobiont absent, sparse, or abundant. Lower Amphithecium: (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high, prosoplectenchymatous or pseudoparenchymatous, of anticlinal hyphae. Amphithecial Cortex: Absent or present; (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide at the base; outer cortical layer grey-brown, grey-red, lime green, dark yellow, brownish yellow, pale grey, brown, pale brown, dark brown, orange, grey, dark grey, black, pink (rosé), pale blue, grey-yellow, red, olive, lemon (citrine), dark red, green, grey-green, violet, aeruginose, dark green, blue, white, brownish blue, grey-blue, brownish red, dark blue, yellow, or pale green; inner cortical layer grey-brown, brownish yellow, lime green, dark yellow, pale grey, brown, pale brown, dark brown, orange, grey, dark grey, black, red, grey-yellow, grey-red, white, pink (rosé), grey-green, brownish red, violet, dark red, grey-blue, pale green, lemon (citrine), olive, aeruginose, dark green, blue, pale blue, brownish blue, dark blue, yellow, or green. Episamma: Without episamma or with episamma. Epithecium: Without epithecium or with epithecium; (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high; apical cells simple, subulate, or spathulate, brown, brownish blue, olive, brownish yellow, brownish red, or pale brown, soluble in 10% KOH or insoluble in 10% KOH, cell pigment reacting with 10% KOH. Hymenium: (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high; white, lemon (citrine), or pale brown; not gelatinized or gelatinized; not inspers, oil inspersed, or inspersed with crystals; iodine reaction: Lugol’s negative or Lugol’s positive. Interascal Hyphae: Scarcely branched to distinctly branched, not or scarcely anastomosed to distinctly anastomosed. Subhymenium: (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high; red, lemon (citrine), brownish yellow, lime green, grey-yellow, dark yellow, grey-red, pale brown, grey-brown, dark brown, orange, grey, black, pink (rosé), dark green, dark grey, dark red, yellow, violet, green, grey-green, olive, aeruginose, pale blue, grey-blue, brownish blue, dark blue, blue, brownish red, brown, white, pale grey, or pale green. Hypothecium: (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm high; white, grey-red, pink (rosé), dark grey, dark brown, grey-brown, grey-yellow, pale blue, grey-blue, olive, grey-green, pale green, brownish red, brownish blue, brownish yellow, orange, lemon (citrine), pale brown, or pale grey; dense textura intricata or serioplectenchymatous; hyphae anticlinal or irregular; not inspers or oil inspersed.

Asci: Broadly clavate, clavate, narrowly clavate, cylindrical, or obclavate; (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm long, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide.

Ascospores: Physcia-type and Pachysporaria-type, Beltraminia-type, Bicincta-type, Bischoffii-type, Callispora-type, Conradii-type, Diplotomma-type, Dirinaria-type, Milvina-type, Mischoblastia, Orcularia-type, Pachysporaria-type, Physcia-type, Physconia-type, Rinodinella, or Tunicata-type, 1–2 to more than 32 per ascus, spores (0)-(0) per ascus, broadly ellipsoid, ellipsoid, oval, or fusiform, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm long, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide; septa absent or present; transversally septate or both transversally and longitudinally; (0)-0-0-0-(0)-transversally septate; forming early during spore ontogeny (Physciaceae-type A) or late during spore ontogeny (Physciaceae-type B); lumina of equal size, apically enlarged, constricted at the centre, or apically and basally tapering; wall thin or thick, (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide, distinctly differentiated into primary and secondary wall, apically not thickened or apically thickened, subapically not thickened or subapically thickened, not thickened at the septum or thickened at the septum, remaining hyaline or becoming pigmented, dark brown, middle brown, grey, or pale brown, not ornamented or ornamented, echinate, foveate, rugulate, striate, or porate, indistinctly halonate, i.e., mucilaginous sheath absent or thin or distinctly halonate, i.e., with a thick mucilaginous sheath.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present; sparse, moderately abundant, or strongly abundant.

Conidiophores: Vobis-type I, Vobis-type II, Vobis-type III, Vobis-type IV, Vobis-type V, Vobis-type VI, Vobis-type VII, or Vobis-type VIII. Conidia: Globose, subglobose, broadly ellipsoid, ellipsoid, oval, fusiform, or bacilliform; (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm long; (0)-0-0-0-(0) µm wide.

Secondary Metabolites: Not detected or present; atranorin, chloroatranorin, gyrophoric acid, hopane-6a,22-diol, lichexanthone, miriquidic acid, norstictic acid, paludosic acid, pannarin, and stictic acid, of the following substance class(es): (higher) aliphatic acids, (anthra-)quinones, and secalonic acids, metabolite(s) of unresolved identity: absent or present. Calcium oxalate crystals: absent or present.

Spot Tests: Upper surface: K – (negative), + deep yellow, or + red, C – or + red, KC – or + red, PD – or + orange; medulla: K –, + yellow, + yellow changing to red, or + orange; C – or + red, KC – or + red, PD – or + red; lower surface: K –, + deep yellow, or + red.

UV-Fluorescence: Upper thallus surface – (negative) or + (positive).

(report generated 13.Nov.2007)

In case that additional characters and states are required to be included in this data set, consult the LIAS Instructions to Participants and follow the procedures described there.