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Physcia biziana (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.

Data Set Maintenance: Data set compiled (Sonoran Desert Lichen Flora). Data set author(s): Bungartz F. (02-01-20) @EXCL@ Nash T.H. Data set reviewer(s): Nash T.H.; to be published after submission; Februar 2002.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted. Taxonomic rank: species. Currently accepted name Physcia biziana (A. Massal) Zahlbr. Physcia. Physciaceae Zahlbr. (1898); Lecanorineae; Lecanorales.

Type Information: Basionym: Squamaria biziana A. Massal (1856). Type: Physcia biziana (A. Massal.) Zahlbr.

Biogeography: Submontane, montane, and upper montane. Continent: Africa, Europe, Northern America, and Southern America. Checklist records: Mexico, Sonoran Desert, and United States and Canada (continental).

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized; lignicolous, corticolous, or saxicolous (exposed); episubstratic; growing sun-exposed or partially shaded; under conditions which are dry or moist.

Thallus: Foliose, subdivided into main parts, lobed; lobes widening towards the apex, slightly ascending (at the tips); imbricate; separate thallus parts 2-(3) mm wide. Thallus Size and Differentiation: Small; (.1)-2-(3) cm in diameter; apex curved upwards. Thallus Outline: Sometimes irregular or orbicular; soon disappearing. Upper Surface: Grey, white (cream), or grey-brown, matt, smooth, pulverulaceous (usually covered by crystular pruina); pruinose; pruina abundant (dense crystular); whitish; continuous; eciliate; without hairs; not isidate; not sorediate; not blastidiate; not schizidiate; not lobulate. Lower Surface: Present, white or pale brown, loosely attached attached; attached by holdfasts; rhizinate; rhizines sparse, grey ( - dark grey), white, or pale grey.

Upper Cortex: Present; outer cortical layer paraplectenchymatous; inner cortical layer prosoplectenchymatous (lower cells becoming rounded) or sometimes paraplectenchymatous. Medulla: White. Lower Cortex: Present.

Reproduction Strategy: With sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Orbicular, forming all across the thallus surface, soon sessile or substipitate, moderately abundant or abundant, 1-(2.5) mm in diam.. Margin: Lecanorine, crenulate (in young apothecia), persistent, prominent; not isidiate; not ciliate; not hirsute. Disk: Plane; black or brown; pruinose, pruina abundant, white. Epithecium: Apical cells spathulate (not spathulate), brown or pale brown. Hymenium: White; not inspers. Interascal Hyphae: Distinctly branched, not or scarcely anastomosed. Subhymenium: White. Hypothecium: White; not inspers.

Asci: Cylindrical.

Ascospores: Physcia-type and Pachysporaria-type, c. 8 per ascus, ellipsoid, (13)-15-18.5-(20.5) µm long, 6.5-8.5-(11) µm wide; septa present; transversally septate; 1-transversally septate; wall thickened at the septum, becoming pigmented, dark brown, middle brown, or pale brown.

Conidiomata: Present; strongly abundant.

Conidia: Bacilliform ( - subcylindrical); 4-(6) µm long; 1 µm wide.

Secondary Metabolites: Present; only in the upper part of the cortex, atranorin.

Spot Tests: Present reactions. Upper surface: K + deep yellow, C –, KC –, PD + yellow; cortex: KC + deep yellow; medulla: K – C –, KC –, PD – soredia: K – KC –.

(report generated 13.Nov.2007)

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