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Physcia aipolia (Ehrh. ex Humb.) Fürnr.

Data Set Maintenance: Data set compiled (Sonoran Desert Lichen Flora). Data set author(s): Bungartz F. (02-01-20) @EXCL@ Esslinger T. @EXCL@ Nash T.H. Data set reviewer(s): Nash T.H.; to be published after submission; February 2002.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted. Taxonomic rank: species. Currently accepted name Physcia aipolia (Humb.) Fürnrohr. Physcia. Physciaceae Zahlbr. (1898); Lecanorineae; Lecanorales.

Type Information: Basionym: Lichen aipolius Ehrh. ex Humb. Type: Physcia aipolia (Humb.) Fürnrohr.

Biogeography: Northern hemispheric; arctic and boreal (and temperate); coastal, colline, submontane, montane, and upper montane. Continent: Asia-Temperate, Europe, Northern America, and Southern America. Checklist records: Austria, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Mexico, Sonoran Desert, Sweden and Norway, and United States and Canada (continental).

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized; lignicolous or corticolous; episubstratic; growing sun-exposed or partially shaded; under conditions which are dry or moist.

Thallus: Foliose, subdivided into main parts, lobed; lobes with parallel margins, horizontal; plane or convex. Thallus Size and Differentiation: (.1)-(5) cm in diameter; apex truncate. Thallus Outline: Sometimes irregular or orbicular; distinct; margin down-turned; soon disappearing. Upper Surface: Grey (to dark (lead) gray), white, rarely grey-brown, or pale grey, matt, smooth; usually maculate; maculae irregular; sometimes pruinose; pruina scarce; whitish; eciliate; not isidate; not sorediate; not blastidiate; not schizidiate; not lobulate. Lower Surface: Present, grey (to dark lead) or white, loosely attached attached; attached by the whole lower surface; not rhizinate.

Upper Cortex: Present; outer cortical layer paraplectenchymatous; inner cortical layer prosoplectenchymatous (the lowermost part gradually forming rounded, isodiametric cells). Medulla: White. Lower Cortex: Present.

Reproduction Strategy: With sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Orbicular, forming in the thallus centre or all across the thallus surface, soon sessile or substipitate, usually abundant, small. Margin: Lecanorine, smooth, persistent, distinct or prominent. Disk: Plane; black or brown; pruinose, pruina usually abundant, white. Epithecium: With epithecium; apical cells pale brown. Hymenium: White; not inspers. Interascal Hyphae: Distinctly branched. Hypothecium: White.

Asci: Cylindrical.

Ascospores: Physcia-type and Pachysporaria-type, c. 8 per ascus, (19)-21-25-(28) µm long, (9)-11-(13) µm wide; septa present; transversally septate; wall thickened at the septum, dark brown, middle brown, grey, or pale brown.

Conidiomata: Present; strongly abundant.

Conidia: Bacilliform; (4)-5-(6) µm long; 1 µm wide.

Secondary Metabolites: Present; only in the upper part of the cortex or throughout the thallus medulla, atranorin (and zeorin, rarely other triterpenes).

Spot Tests: Present reactions. Upper surface: K + deep yellow, C –, KC –, PD + yellow; cortex: KC + deep yellow, medulla: K + yellow; C –, KC –, PD – (+ yellow); soredia: K + deep yellow; KC –.

(report generated 13.Nov.2007)

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