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Xanthoparmelia scabrosa (Taylor) Hale

Data Set Maintenance: Data set compiled (Flora of Australia Vol. 55 Lichens-Lecanorales, Parmeliaceae). Data set author(s): Nöske, N. M. @EXCL@ Bungartz F. (06-05-31). Data set not revised; to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted. Taxonomic rank: species. Currently accepted name Xanthoparmelia scabrosa (Taylor) Hale. Xanthoparmelia. Synonyms: Parmelia scabrosa (Taylor) Hale
Parmelia conspersa var. hypoclystoides Müll. Arg.
Parmelia hypoclystoides (Müll. Arg.) Gyeln.
Xanthoparmelia hypoclystoides (Müll. Arg.) Hale
Parmelia linkolae Gyeln.
Parmelia subreagens Gyeln.
Parmelia scabropustulata Elix
(Parmelia conspersa var. hypoclista f. isidiosa auct. non Müll. Arg. = Xanthoparmelia subramigera (Gyeln.) Hale;
Parmeliaceae Zenker (1827); Lecanorineae; Lecanorales.

Type Information: Basionym: Parmelia scabrosa (Taylor) Hale. Type: Parmelia scabrosa (Taylor) Hale; type specimen label data: J. Drummond; holo: FH; iso: BM.

Taxonomic Literature: Phytologia 28: 488 (1974).

Biogeography: Southern hemispheric. Continent: Africa, Australasia, Southern America, and Pacific (South Pacific (Papua New Guinea and Fiji), also in South America (Argentina) and South Africa). Checklist records: Australia (One of the most common species of Xanthoparmelia in Australia, present in all States and Territories), Japan, and New Zealand.

Ecology: Lichenized; bryophytic, lignicolous, corticolous, or saxicolous (altough predominantely found on rock in undisturbed sites, the species has a very wide substratum tolerance (tree bark, decorticated wood, slate, roofing tiles, glass, bryophytes, bitumen paths and roads)).

Thallus: Foliose, irregular, lobed; lobes elongate or linear (sublinear to subirregular), imbricate (or not); plane; separate thallus parts.8-2-(3) mm wide. Thallus Size and Differentiation: Up to 5 cm in diameter. Upper Surface: Lime green, matt, smooth; immaculate; isidiate (numerous, isidia apices epicorticate, becoming erumpent and pustulate-sorediate with age); isidia globular (or warty, sometimes becoming cylindrical and branched). Lower Surface: Present, pale brown or dark brown (somewhat darker towards lobe apices); attached by holdfasts (loosely adnate to adnate); rhizinate (slender); rhizines sparse or moderately abundant, pale brown or dark brown (concolorous with lower surface), not branched.

Medulla: White.

Reproduction Strategy: With sexual (and possible asexual) stages (subpedicellate). Ascocarps: Apothecioid, up to 7 mm in diam.. Margin: Distinct (strongly involute at first); isidiate. Disk: Urceolate (less so at maturity), dark brown (shiny).

Ascospores: 8-12 µm long, 5-6 µm wide.

Conidiomata: Present (but rare).

Conidia: Bifusiform; 6-7 µm long; .5 µm wide.

Secondary Metabolites: Present; norlobaridone (other secondary metabolites: loxodin, +/ scabrosin 4,4'-diacetate, +/- scabrosin 4-acetate 4'-butyrate, +/- scabrosin 4,4'-dibutyrate and +/- scabrosin 4-acetate 4' hexanoate; rarely containing traces of isonorlobaridone, norlobariol, norlobariol methyl ester, conloxodin or conorlobaridone) and usnic acid.

Spot Tests: Cortex: KC – medulla: K –, C –, KC + pink (rose), PD –.

UV-Fluorescence: Upper thallus surface – (negative).

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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