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Parmelia fraudans (Nyl.) Nyl.

Data Set Maintenance: Data set standard item. Data set author(s): Nash T.H. Data set reviewer(s): Nash T.H.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted. Taxonomic rank: species. Parmelia. Parmeliaceae Zenker (1827); Lecanorineae; Lecanorales.

Type Information: Type: Parmelia saxatilis (L.) Ach. var. fraudans Nyl.

Taxonomic Literature: Hale 1990.

Biogeography: Boreal; upper montane. Continent: Asia-Temperate and Europe. Checklist records: Sonoran Desert, Sweden and Norway, and United States and Canada (continental).

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized; substrate non-calciferous.

Thallus: Foliose, subdivided into main parts, and secondary or without secondary parts, continuous throughout, lobed; lobes elongate, horizontal; plane; branches applanate (moderately flattened); bifacial; not segmented; separate thallus parts 1-2-3 mm wide. Thallus Size and Differentiation: 5-10-15 cm in diameter; main branches basally not constricted; apex truncate. Upper Surface: Grey-green or grey-brown, plane, matt or glossy (shiny), smooth or rough; fissures strongly developed, with extrusions, transversely oriented oriented; foveate; not convoluted; immaculate; without patches; pruinose, pruina patchy; pseudocyphellate; pseudocyphellae reticulate, distributed all over the surface, plane, central or laminal, irregular, not prominent; not wrinkled; eciliate; without hairs; not isidate; without isidiomorphs; not papillate, not pustulate; sorediate; soralia white or lemon (citrine), subperipheral or peripheral, lateral, forming from cracks or fissures, semicapitate or spathulate, linear, slightly excavated, confluent, but not fusing, transversal, isidiate, soredia coarse; not tuberculate; not lobulate. Lower Surface: Present, black, black in the centre, dark brown along the margin; attached by holdfasts; not cyphellate; not wrinkled; rhizinate; rhizines abundant, extending all across the lower surface, black, branched, sparsely furcate; not tuberculate.

Hydrochasic Thallus Movement: Not performing hygrochasic thallus movement.

Upper Cortex: Double-layered. Medulla: Single-layered.

Reproduction Strategy: With sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Apothecioid, forming all across the thallus surface, all across the surface, sparse, 1-2-3 mm in diam.. Margin: Crenulate, slightly pruinose; not sorediate; not isidiate; with pseudocyphellae pseudocyphellae; not ciliate; not hirsute. Disk: Brown. Hymenium: 45 µm high.

Asci: Dehiscence lecanoralean.

Ascospores: c. 8 per ascus, ellipsoid, 10-11-12 µm long, 5-5.5-6 µm wide.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed.

Secondary Metabolites: Present; only in the upper part of the cortex, throughout the cortex, or throughout the thallus medulla, atranorin, consalazinic acid, protolichesterinic acid, and salazinic acid, metabolite(s) of unresolved identity: absent.

Spot Tests: Cortex: KC + deep yellow; medulla: K + yellow changing to red, C –, KC –, PD + red.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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