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Canoparmelia caroliniana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale

Data Set Maintenance: Data set compiled (from Sonoran Desert Lichen Flora Vol. 1). Data set author(s): Bungartz F. (02-10-11). Data set to be published after submission; February 2002.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted. Taxonomic rank: species. Currently accepted name Canoparmelia caroliniana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale. Canoparmelia. Synonyms: Pseudoparmelia caroliniana (Nyl.) Hale; Parmeliaceae Zenker (1827); Lecanorineae; Lecanorales.

Type Information: Basionym: Parmelia caroliniana Nyl. Type: Canoparmelia caroliniana (Nyl.) Elix & Hale.

Taxonomic Literature: Elix & Hale, Mycotaxon 27: 28 (1986).

Biogeography: Mediterranean and pantropical; submontane, montane, and upper montane. Continent: Europe (South East), Northern America, and Southern America. Checklist records: Mexico, Sonoran Desert, and United States and Canada (continental).

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized; corticolous or rarely saxicolous; growing sun-exposed, under conditions which are dry or moist.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont present; chlorococcal. Primary photobiont taxonomy: Trebouxia; Trebouxiaceae; Trebouxiales.

Thallus: Foliose, subdivided into main (lobes) parts, dispersed throughout and distinctly seperate, lobed; lobes elongate, horizontal. Thallus Size and Differentiation: 4-10 cm in diameter; apex rounded. Thallus Outline: Orbicular. Upper Surface: Plane or subconvex, matt, smooth; fissurate; fissures reticulate; maculate; maculae reticulate; pruinose, pruina patchy (along lobe tips); not pseudocyphellate; wrinkled; eciliate; isidiate; isidia laminal, cylindrical, ramified, sparse or coralloid; not pustulate; not sorediate. Lower Surface: Present, black or dark brown (rarely); attached by holdfasts (true rhizines); rhizines sparse or moderately abundant, black, not branched.

Upper Cortex: Present; eucortical; prosoplectenchymatous or paraplectenchymatous (pallisade); epicortex present; porous. Medulla: White, loose; iodine reaction in Lugol's solution positive (with isolichenan).

Reproduction Strategy: With sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Apothecioid, forming all across the thallus surface, all across the surface, independently from the host thallus or mycelium, soon sessile, sparse, 1-4 mm in diam.. Margin: Persistent, distinct; isidiate. Disk: Excavate, dark brown or brownish red. Exciple: White (to grey). Epithecium: Apical cells brown (to yellowish brown). Hypothecium: White.

Asci: Clavate; dehiscence lecanoralean.

Ascospores: c. 8 per ascus, spores 8 per ascus, ellipsoid, 13-15 µm long, 6-8 µm wide, obtuse; septa absent.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed (not seen).

Secondary Metabolites: Present; only in the upper part of the cortex (atranorin & chloroatranorin) or throughout the thallus medulla (perlatolic acid and unknown), atranorin, chloroatranorin, or perlatolic acid, metabolite(s) of unresolved identity: present.

Spot Tests: Cortex: KC + deep yellow, C –, KC –, PD + yellow; medulla: K –, C –, KC + red (pale pink), PD –.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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