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Verrucaria Schrad. (1794)

Data Set Maintenance: Data set standard item. Data set author(s): Rambold G. Data set reviewer(s): Keller C. (97-01-20), Scholz P. (06-06-13), and Triebel D. (01-08-15; 02-07-05); revised; to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted or basionymous. Taxonomic rank: genus. Number of known taxa within this rank: 300. Verrucaria. Verrucariaceae Zenker (1827); Verrucariales.

Type Information: Type: Verrucaria rupestris Schrad. (= Verrucaria muralis Ach.).

Taxonomic Literature: Alstrup V. & Hansen E.S., Graphis Scripta 12: 41-50 (2001); Aptroot A., Diederich P., Sérusiaux E. & Sipman H.J.M., Biblioth. Lichenol. 64: 1-220 [208] (1997); Breuss O., Linzer Biol. Beitr. 25: 657-659 (1993); Clauzade G. & Roux C., Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, N.S. 7: 1-893 [780-815] (1985); Fletcher A., Lichenologist 7: 1-52 (1975); Galloway D.J., Flora of New Zealand. Lichens: 1-662 [604-608] (1985); Harada H., J. Jap. Bot. 67: 218-226 (1992); Harada H., Bryologist 99: 343-344 (1996); Hawksworth D.L., Lichenologist 21: 23-28 (1989); Hawksworth D.L., McCarthy P.M. & Fletcher A. in: Purvis O.W., Coppins B.J., Hawksworth D.L., James P.W. & Moore D.M. (eds), The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland: 1-710 [630-642] (1992); Hoffmann N. & Hafellner J., Biblioth. Lichenol. 77: 1-190 [115-119] (2000); McCarthy P.M., Lichenologist 20: 1-10; 245-251 (1988); Orange A., Mycotaxon 81: 265-279 (2002); Poulton E.T., Ann. Bot. 28: 241-249 (1914); Santesson R., Ark. Bot. 29A(10): 1-67 (1939); Swinskow T.D., Lichenologist 4: 34-54 (1968); Zschacke H., Hedwigia 65: 46-64 (1924); Zschacke H., Hedwigia 67: 45-85 (1927); Zschacke H., Rabenh. Kryptog.-Fl. 9,1(1): 44-480 [50-325] (1933).

Biogeography: Checklist records: Austria, Bolivia, Germany, Great Britain, Guianas, Italy, New Guinea, New Zealand, Sonoran Desert, Sweden and Norway, United States and Canada (continental), and Republic of South Africa.

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized or lichenicolous; terricolous or corticolous; substrate non-calciferous or calciferous.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont present; chlorococcal. Primary photobiont taxonomy: Coccobotrys, Dilabifilum, Heterococcus, Myrmecia, Petroderma, and Protococcus (A. Beck 22-05-97); Heterococcaceae, Lithodermataceae, Trebouxiaceae, and genus incertae sedis; Ectocarpales, Trebouxiales, Tribonematales, and family of unknown placement (incertae sedis), Xanthophyceae, Phaeophyceae, Chlorophyceae, and Trebouxiophyceae, Eukariota. Secondary photobiont absent.

Thallus: Indistinct or crustose, not subdivided parts, granular, rimose, or areolate (primarily areolate). Upper Surface: White, grey, black, pink (rosé), green, olive, brownish yellow, or brown; special structures absent. Lower Surface: Attached by the whole lower surface; special structures absent.

Medulla: Iodine reaction in Lugol's solution negative; not different with or without KOH pre-treatment (euamyloid).

Reproduction Strategy: Only known as sterile, asexually reproducing form or with sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Perithecioid, orbicular, forming all across the thallus surface, not emerging, becoming adnate to soon sessile. Wall: Carbonized around the ostiole, lacking a clypeus (with involucrellum) or with a carbonized black clypeus around the ostiole, not fused. Margin: Indistinct to prominent; external filaments absent. Exciple: White, black, brownish yellow, or brown. Periphyses: Absent or present. Hymenium: Iodine reaction: Lugol’s negative, hemiamyloid. Interascal Hyphae: Absent. Hypothecium: White or brown.

Asci: Tholus thickened, not amyloid; dehiscence verrucarial; exoascus not amyloid, not hemiamyloid.

Ascospores: c. 8 per ascus, globose, ellipsoid, broadly ellipsoid, ovoid, or fusiform, 6-40 µm long, 4-24 µm wide, obtuse; septa absent (very rarely 1-septate when overmature); wall thin or thick, distinctly differentiated into primary and secondary wall, not thickened at the septum, hyaline, in Lugol's Solution negative, wall not ornamented.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present; pycnidial; immersed, formed along the thallus periphery.

Conidia: Bacilliform; up to 0-septate.

Secondary Metabolites: Not detected.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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