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Rhizocarpon Ramond ex DC. (1805)

Data Set Maintenance: Data set standard item. Data set author(s): Rambold G. Data set reviewer(s): Scholz P. (06-06-13), Timdal E. (95-04-20, 99-06-01), and Triebel D. (98-01-01); revised; to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted or basionymous. Taxonomic rank: genus. Number of known taxa within this rank: 100. Rhizocarpon. Rhizocarpaceae Hafellner (1984); Cladoniineae; Lecanorales.

Type Information: Type: Rhizocarpon geographicum (L.) Ram. ex DC.

Taxonomic Literature: Alstrup V. & Hansen E.S., Graphis Scripta 12: 41-50 (2001); Alstrup V. & Hawksworth D.L., Meddel. Grønland, Biosci. 31: 1-90 [60-61] (1990); Aptroot A., Diederich P., Sérusiaux E. & Sipman H.J.M., Biblioth. Lichenol. 64: 1-220 [171] (1997); Clauzade G. & Roux C., Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, N.S. 7: 1-893 [665-678] (1985); Feuerer T., Ber. Bayer. Bot. Ges. 49: 59-135 (1978); Feuerer T., Biblioth. Lichenol. 39: 1-218 (1991); Galloway D.J., Flora of New Zealand. Lichens: 1-662 [503-507] (1985); Gelting P., Bot. Tidskr. 51: 71-92 (1954); Hafellner J., Beih. Nova Hedwigia 62: 1-248 [82-86] (1979); Kalb K. & Hafellner J., Herzogia 9: 45-102 [86-87] (1992); Nimis P.L. & Poelt J., Stud. Geobot. 7, Suppl. 1: 1-269 [203-207] (1987); Poelt J., Herzogia 7: 93-98 (1986) [.

Biogeography: Checklist records: Austria, Bolivia, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, New Guinea, New Zealand, Sonoran Desert, Sweden and Norway, United States and Canada (continental), and Republic of South Africa.

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized or lichenicolous; terricolous, bryophytic, lignicolous, or corticolous; substrate non-calciferous or calciferous.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont absent or present; chlorococcal. Primary photobiont taxonomy: Trebouxia (A. Beck 22-05-97); Trebouxiaceae; Trebouxiales, Trebouxiophyceae, Eukariota. Secondary photobiont absent or present.

Thallus: Indistinct or crustose, not subdivided parts, granular, rimose, or areolate (primarily areolate). Thallus Outline: Soon disappearing or persistent. Upper Surface: White, grey, red, olive, yellow, brownish yellow, brown, or orange; special structures absent or present:; not pseudocyphellate; eciliate; without hairs; not isidate or isidiate; not sorediate or sorediate; not cephalodiate or cephalodiate; not lobulate; without granules granules, without thalloconidia thalloconidia. Lower Surface: Attached by the whole lower surface; special structures absent or present:; not pseudocyphellate; not cyphellate; not rhizinate; without thalloconidia thalloconidia; not cavernulate; not tomentose.

Medulla: Iodine reaction in Lugol's solution negative or in Lugol's solution positive.

Reproduction Strategy: Only known as sterile, asexually reproducing form or with sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Apothecioid, orbicular, forming all across the thallus surface, becoming adnate to soon sessile. Margin: Distinct to prominent; external filaments absent. Exciple: Black, green, brownish yellow, or brown. Periphyses: Absent. Epithecium: Apical cells black, green, olive, brownish yellow, or brown. Hymenium: Iodine reaction: Lugol’s positive. Interascal Hyphae: Present, distinctly branched, distinctly anastomosed. Hypothecium: Black or brown.

Asci: Tholus thickened, amyloid, with amyloid cap; ocular chamber indistinct; dehiscence lecanoralean; exoascus euamyloid.

Ascospores: 1–2 to c. 8 per ascus, globose, ellipsoid, broadly ellipsoid, or oblong, 9-70 µm long, 5-30 µm wide, obtuse; septa present; transversally septate or both transversally and longitudinally, 1-30-transversally septate; wall thick, distinctly differentiated into primary and secondary wall, not thickened at the septum, laterally constricted where the septum meets the spore wall, hyaline or pale brown to middle brown or dark brown, in Lugol's Solution negative, wall not ornamented.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present; pycnidial; immersed, formed all accross the thallus surface or along the thallus periphery.

Conidiogeneous Cells: Apical. Conidia: Bacilliform or curved.

Secondary Metabolites: Not detected or present, of the following substance class(es): (higher) aliphatic acids, orcinol depsides, ß-orcinol depsides, ß-orcinol depsidones, and pulvinic acid derivatives.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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