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Porina Müll. Arg. (1883)

Data Set Maintenance: Data set standard item. Data set author(s): Rambold G. Data set reviewer(s): Aptroot A. (95-02-10; 00-03-27), Triebel D. (00-03-27), and Scholz P. (02-05-16); revised; to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted or basionymous. Taxonomic rank: genus. Number of known taxa within this rank: 320. Porina. Trichotheliaceae (Müll. Arg.) Bitter & Schill (1927); Trichotheliales.

Type Information: Type: Porina nucula Ach.

Taxonomic Literature: Aprtoot A. in: Nash T.H. III et al. (eds) Lichen Flora of the Greater
Sonoran Desert Region vol. 1, 402-405, Tempe (2002); Aptroot A.,
Diederich P., Sérusiaux E. & Sipman H.J.M., Biblioth.
Lichenol. 64: 1-220 [143-145] (1997); Aptroot A. & Sipman H.J.M.,
Flora of the Guianas, Ser. E, 2: 1-57 (1993); Clauzade G. & Roux
C., Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest N.S. - Numero Special 7: 1-893 [624-
631] (1985); Galloway D.J., Flora of New Zealand lichens: i-lxxiii, 1-
662 [411-418], Wellington (1985); Hafellner J. & Kalb K. in:
Farkas E.+., Lücking R. & Wirth V. (eds), Biblioth.
Lichenol. 58: 161-186 [170-171] (1995); Harris R.C., A
revision of the genus Arthopyrenia A. Massal. s. lat.
in North America. - Ph. D. diss., Michigan State Univ.,
Lansing (1975); Harris R.C., More Florida lichens including the
tour of the pyrenolichens: 1-192 [172-175], Bronx NY (1995);

Lücking R., Nova Hedwigia 52: 267-304 (1991); Lücking R.,

Botanica Acta 109: 248-260 (1996); Lücking R., Nova Hedwigia
375-417 (1998); Lücking R. & Cáceres M. E. S.,
Lichenologist 31: 349-358 (1999); Lücking R. & Vezda A.,
Willdenowia 28: 181-225 (1998); McCarthy P.M., Biblioth. Lichenol.
52: 1-134 (1993); McCarthy P.M., Lichenologist 22: 195-197 (1990);
McCarthy P.M., Lichenologist 24: 305-307 (1992); McCarthy P.M.,
Lichenologist 29: 229-236 (1997); McCarthy P.M. & Coppins B.J.,
Lichenologist 27: 308-310 (1995); McCarthy P.M. & Kantvilas G.,
Lichenologist 25: 137-146 (1993); McCarthy P.M. & Tønsberg
T., Lichenologist 30(3): 245-248 (1998; Poelt J. & Vezda A.,
Biblioth. Lichenol. 9: 1-258 [193-203] (1977); Purvis O.W. &
James P.W. in: Purvis O.W. et al. (eds), The Lichen Flora of Great
Britain and Ireland, London (1992); Santesson R., Symb. Bot. Upsal.
12: 1-590 [199-266] (1952); Swinscow T.D.V., Lichenologist 2: 6-56
(1962); Swinscow T.D.V., Lichenologist 3: 72-83 (1965); Vezda A.,

Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 10: 383-432 (1975).

Biogeography: Checklist records: Austria, Germany, Guianas, Italy, New Guinea, New Zealand, Sonoran Desert, Sweden and Norway, Thailand, United States and Canada (continental), and Republic of South Africa.

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized or lichenicolous; terricolous, bryophytic, corticolous, or epiphyllous; substrate non-calciferous or calciferous.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont present; trentepohlioid. Primary photobiont taxonomy: Phycopeltis (A. Beck 22-05-97) and Trentepohlia (following Lücking & Vezda 1998: 183); Trentepohliaceae; Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae, Eukariota. Secondary photobiont absent.

Thallus: Crustose, not subdivided parts, granular or rimose. Thallus Outline: Soon disappearing or persistent. Upper Surface: Black, grey, green, brown, white, olive, brownish yellow, orange, or pink (rosé); special structures absent or present:; not pseudocyphellate; eciliate; without hairs or hairy; not isidate or isidiate (Phyllophiale-type isidia or schizidia); not sorediate; not cephalodiate; not lobulate; without granules granules, without thalloconidia thalloconidia. Lower Surface: Attached by the whole lower surface; special structures absent; not pseudocyphellate; not cyphellate; not rhizinate; without thalloconidia thalloconidia; not cavernulate; not tomentose.

Reproduction Strategy: Only known as sterile, asexually reproducing form or with sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Perithecioid, orbicular, forming all across the thallus surface, not emerging, becoming adnate to soon sessile. Margin: Indistinct to distinct; external filaments absent or present. Exciple: Black, brown, red, white, or brownish yellow. Periphyses: Absent or present (in a few species). Interascal Hyphae: Present, scarcely branched, not or scarcely anastomosed. Hypothecium: White or brownish yellow.

Asci: Tholus not thickened or thickened (with refractive ring in tholus), not amyloid or amyloid; dehiscence unitunicate.

Ascospores: c. 8 per ascus, ellipsoid, fusiform, filiform, or clavate, 13-120 µm long, 2-20 µm wide, obtuse or aciculate; septa present; transversally septate or both transversally and longitudinally, 3-35-transversally septate, formed by the proper spore wall; wall thin or thick, distinctly differentiated into primary and secondary wall, not thickened at the septum, hyaline, in Lugol's Solution negative, wall not ornamented.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present; pycnidial; immersed or sessile, formed all accross the thallus surface.

Conidia: Bacilliform; microconidial or rarely macroconidial.

Secondary Metabolites: Not detected.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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