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Lithothelium Müll. Arg. (1885)

Data Set Maintenance: Data set standard item. Data set author(s): Rambold G. Data set reviewer(s): Aptroot A. (95-02-10); revised; to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted or basionymous. Taxonomic rank: genus. Number of known taxa within this rank: 20 (A. Aptroot 99-09-27). Lithothelium. Synonyms: Plagiocarpa R.C. Harris, Pleurotrema Müll. Arg., Pleurotrematomyces Cif. & Tomas.; Pyrenulaceae Rabenh. (1870); Pyrenulales.

Type Information: Type: Lithothelium cubanum Müll. Arg.

Taxonomic Literature: Aptroot A., Biblioth. Lichenol. 44: 1-178 (1991); Aptroot A. & Mayrhofer H., Mycotaxon 41: 219-222 (1991); Harris R.C., A taxonomic revision of the genus Arthopyrenia A. Massal. s. lat. (Ascomycetes) in North America. - Ph. D. diss., Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (1975); McCarthy P.M., Lichenologist 28: 290-294 (1996); Upreti D.K. & Aptroot A., Lichenologist 28: 89-100 (1996).

Biogeography: Checklist records: Italy, New Zealand, United States and Canada (continental), Guianas, and New Guinea.

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized; corticolous or epiphyllous; substrate non-calciferous or calciferous.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont present; trentepohlioid. Secondary photobiont absent.

Thallus: Indistinct or crustose, not subdivided parts, rimose. Thallus Outline: Soon disappearing or persistent. Upper Surface: Brown, green, grey, brownish yellow, olive, or white; special structures absent. Lower Surface: Attached by the whole lower surface; special structures absent or present:; not pseudocyphellate; not cyphellate; not rhizinate; without thalloconidia thalloconidia; not cavernulate; not tomentose.

Reproduction Strategy: Only known as sterile, asexually reproducing form or with sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Perithecioid, forming all across the thallus surface, stromatic. Wall: With a carbonized black clypeus around the ostiole, not fused or fused. Margin: External filaments absent. Exciple: Black or brown. Periphyses: Absent. Interascal Hyphae: Present, scarcely branched, not or scarcely anastomosed.

Asci: Tholus thickened, not amyloid; ocular chamber indistinct; dehiscence bitunicate.

Ascospores: c. 8 per ascus, ellipsoid or fusiform, 13-80 µm long, 3.5-26 µm wide, obtuse or aciculate; septa present; transversally septate or both transversally and longitudinally, 3-7-transversally septate, formed by the endospore wall layer; wall thin, not thickened at the septum, hyaline or dark brown, in Lugol's Solution negative, wall not ornamented.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present; pycnidial; formed all accross the thallus surface.

Conidiogeneous Cells: Apical. Conidia: Filiform.

Secondary Metabolites: Not detected.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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