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Lecanora Ach. (1810)

Data Set Maintenance: Data set standard item. Data set author(s): Rambold G. Data set reviewer(s): Lumbsch H. T. (94-12-28, 99-09-06), Ryan B. (96-03-01), and Scholz P. (06-06-12); revised; to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted or basionymous. Taxonomic rank: genus. Number of known taxa within this rank: 300. Lecanora. Lecanoraceae Körb. (1855); Lecanorineae; Lecanorales.

Type Information: Type: Lecanora subfusca (L.) Ach. nom. rej., L. allophana Nyl.

Taxonomic Literature: Brodo I.M., Beih. Nova Hedwigia 79: 63-185 (1984); Brodo, I.M., Owe-
Larsson B. & Lumbsch H.T., Nord. J. Bot. 14: 451-461 (1994); Brodo, I.M. & O. Vitikainen, Mycotaxon 21: 281-298 (1984); Clauzade, G. Bull. Soc. Linn. Provençe 19: 1-8 (1953); Dickhäuser A., Lumbsch H.T. & Feige G.B., Mycotaxon 56: 303-323 (1995); Eigler G., Diss. Bot. 4: 1-195 (1969); Elix, J.A. & H.T. Lumbsch, Mycotaxon 59: 309-317 (1996); Etayo J. & Sancho L.G., Nova Hedwigia 83: 483-488 (2006); Galloway D.J., Flora of New Zealand. Lichens: 1-662 [209-219] (1985); Hawksworth D.L. & Dalby D.H. in: Purvis O.W., Coppins B.J., Hawksworth D.L., James P.W. & Moore D.M. (eds), The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland: 1-710 [292-318] (1992); Imshaug H. & Brodo I., Nova
Hedwigia 12: 1-59 (1966); Kofler, L., Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 25: 167-182 (1956); Kondratyuk S.Y.A. & Zelenko S.D., Ukrayins'k. Bot. Zhurn. 59(5): 598-607 (2002); Leuckert, Ch. & J. Poelt, Nova Hedwigia 49: 121-167 (1989); Lumbsch H.T., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 77: 1-175 (1994); Lumbsch, H.T. & J.A. Elix, Trop. Bryology 7: 71-75 (1993); Lumbsch H.T. & Feige G.B. & J. A. Elix, Bryologist 98: 561 577 (1995); Lumbsch, H.T., R. Guderley & J.A. Elix, Bryologist 99: 269-291 (1996); Lumbsch H.T. & Nash T.H., Bryologist 98: 398 401 (1995); Lumbsch H.T., Plümper M.,
Guderley R. & Feige G.B., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 32(1): 131-162 (1997); Magnusson, A.H., Medd. Göteb. Bot. Trädg. 7: 65-87 (1932); Miyawaki H., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 64: 271-326 (1988); Poelt, J., Ber. Bayer. Bot. Ges. 29: 58 69 (1952); Poelt J. & Leuckert C. in: Farkas E.+., Lücking R. & Wirth V. (eds), Biblioth. Lichenol. 58: 289-333 (1995); Poelt J. & Vezda A., Biblioth. Lichenol. 9: 1-258 [135-148] (1977) - subg. Placodium; Poelt J. & Vezda A., Biblioth. Lichenol. 16: 1-390 [170-188] (1981); Rambold G., Biblioth. Lichenol. 34: 1-346 (1989); Rambold G. & Triebel D., Biblioth. Lichenol. 48: 1-201 [108-110] (1992); Ryan B.D. & Nash T.H., Cryptog. Bot. 3: 264-269 (1993); Ryan B.D. & Nash T.H.,
Bryologist 96: 288-298 (1993); Ryan B.D. & Nash T.H., Mycotaxon 53: 479-488 (1995); Ryan B.D. & Nash T.H., Nova Hedwigia 64: 111-127 (1997); Vänskä, H., Ann. Bot. Fenn. 23: 121-141 (1986).

Biogeography: Checklist records: Australia, Austria, Bolivia, Germany, Great Britain, Guianas, Italy, New Guinea, New Zealand, Sonoran Desert, Sweden and Norway, Thailand, United States and Canada (continental), Namibia, and Republic of South Africa.

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized or lichenicolous; terricolous, bryophytic, lignicolous, or corticolous; substrate non-calciferous or calciferous.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont absent or present; chlorococcal. Primary photobiont taxonomy: Trebouxia (A. Beck 22-05-97); Trebouxiaceae; Trebouxiales, Trebouxiophyceae, Eukariota. Secondary photobiont absent.

Thallus: Indistinct or crustose, not subdivided parts, leprose, granular, rimose, areolate (primarily areolate), placodioid, squamulose, or subfruticose. Thallus Outline: Soon disappearing or persistent. Upper Surface: White, grey, green, olive, yellow, brownish yellow, or brown; special structures absent or present:; not pseudocyphellate; eciliate; without hairs; not isidate or isidiate; not sorediate or sorediate; not cephalodiate; not lobulate; without granules granules, without thalloconidia thalloconidia. Lower Surface: Attached by the whole lower surface; special structures absent or present:; not pseudocyphellate; not cyphellate; not rhizinate; without thalloconidia thalloconidia; not cavernulate; not tomentose.

Medulla: Iodine reaction in Lugol's solution negative; not different with or without KOH pre-treatment (euamyloid).

Reproduction Strategy: Only known as sterile, asexually reproducing form or with sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Apothecioid, orbicular, forming all across the thallus surface, not emerging, becoming adnate to soon sessile. Wall: Not carbonized, not fused. Margin: Indistinct to prominent; external filaments absent. Exciple: White, olive, or brownish yellow. Periphyses: Absent. Epithecium: Apical cells hyaline, grey, green, olive, brownish yellow, or brown. Hymenium: Oil inspersed, iodine reaction: Lugol’s positive, not hemiamyloid. Interascal Hyphae: Present, scarcely branched, not or scarcely anastomosed. Hypothecium: White, grey, brownish yellow, or brown.

Asci: Tholus thickened, amyloid, with non-amyloid wide axial body and divergent amyloid flanks towards apex; dehiscence lecanoralean; exoascus not amyloid or euamyloid, not hemiamyloid.

Ascospores: c. 4 to 16-32 per ascus, globose, ellipsoid, or broadly ellipsoid, 6-20 µm long, 3-9.5 µm wide, obtuse; septa absent; wall thin, not thickened at the septum, hyaline, in Lugol's Solution negative, wall not ornamented.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present; pycnidial; immersed, formed all accross the thallus surface.

Conidiogeneous Cells: Apical. Conidia: Filiform or curved; microconidial, not branched; aseptate; cell wall hyaline.

Secondary Metabolites: Not detected or present, of the following substance class(es): (higher) aliphatic acids, (anthra-)quinones, dibenzofurans [and usnic acids], orcinol depsides, orcinol depsidones, ß-orcinol depsides, ß-orcinol depsidones, pulvinic acid derivatives, (tri-)terpenoids, and xanthones.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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