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Graphis Adans. (1763)

Data Set Maintenance: Data set standard item. Data set author(s): Rambold G. Data set reviewer(s): Aptroot A. (95-02-18), Sipman H. (98-01-15), and Staiger B. (98-10-22); revised; to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted or basionymous. Taxonomic rank: genus. Number of known taxa within this rank: 300. Graphis. Graphidaceae Dumort. (1822); Ostropales.

Type Information: Type: Graphis scripta (L.) Ach.

Taxonomic Literature: Awasthi D.D., Biblioth. Lichenol. 40: 1-337 (1975); Awasthi D.D.
& Singh Kr.P., Norweg. J. Bot. 19: 242 (1972); Galloway D.J.,
Flora of New Zealand lichens: i-lxxiii, 1-662 [173-176], Wellington
(1985); Harris R.C., Some Florida Lichens: 1-109 (1990); Orange A.
& James P.W. in: Purvis O.W. et al. (eds), The Lichen Flora of
Great Britain and Ireland, London (1992); Redinger K.M., Rev. Bryol.
Lichénol. 9: 37-122 (1936); Vainio E.A., Ann. Acad. Sci.
Fenn., Ser. A: 1-368 (1921); Wirth M. & Hale M.E., Contr. U.S.
Nat. Herb. 36: 63-119 (1966); Wirth M. & Hale M.E., Smithsonian
Contr. Bot. 40: 1-64 (1978).

Biogeography: Checklist records: Austria, Germany, Great Britain, Guianas, Italy, New Zealand, Sweden and Norway, Thailand, United States and Canada (continental), and Republic of South Africa.

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized; corticolous or epiphyllous.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont present; trentepohlioid. Primary photobiont taxonomy: Trentepohlia (A. Beck 22-05-97); Trentepohliaceae; Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae, Eukariota. Secondary photobiont absent.

Thallus: Indistinct or crustose, not subdivided parts. Upper Surface: Grey, white, olive, or brownish yellow; special structures absent. Lower Surface: Attached by the whole lower surface; special structures absent.

Reproduction Strategy: Only known as sterile, asexually reproducing form or with sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Apothecioid, linear, forming all across the thallus surface, not emerging, becoming adnate to soon sessile. Margin: Distinct to prominent. Exciple: Black, brown, white, or brownish yellow. Periphyses: Absent. Epithecium: Apical cells brown, red, hyaline, or brownish yellow. Hymenium: Oil inspersed, iodine reaction: Lugol’s negative, not hemiamyloid. Interascal Hyphae: Present, scarcely branched, not or scarcely anastomosed. Hypothecium: Black, brown, white, or brownish yellow.

Asci: Tholus thickened, not amyloid; exoascus not amyloid, not hemiamyloid.

Ascospores: 1–2 to c. 8 per ascus, broadly ellipsoid, ellipsoid, fusiform, clavate, or oblong, 5-150 µm long, 3-15 µm wide, obtuse; septa present; transversally septate, 3-35-transversally septate, formed by the endospore wall layer; wall thin or thick, distinctly differentiated into primary and secondary wall, not thickened at the septum, hyaline, in Lugol's Solution negative or in Lugol's Solution positive, wall not ornamented.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present; pycnidial; formed all accross the thallus surface.

Conidia: Globose or bacilliform.

Secondary Metabolites: Not detected or present, of the following substance class(es): ß-orcinol depsidones, (anthra-)quinones, and xanthones.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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