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Graphina Müll. Arg. (1880)

Data Set Maintenance: Data set standard item. Data set author(s): Rambold G. Data set reviewer(s): Aptroot A. (95-02-18), Sipman H. (98-01-15), and Staiger B. (98-10-22); revised; to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted or basionymous. Taxonomic rank: genus. Number of known taxa within this rank: 200. Graphina. Graphidaceae Dumort. (1822); Ostropales.

Type Information: Type: Graphina anguina (Mont.) Müll. Arg.

Taxonomic Literature: Awasthi D.D., Biblioth. Lichenol. 40: 1-337 (1975); Clauzade G. &
Roux C., Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest N.S. - Numero Special 7: 1-893
[372-373] (1985); Galloway D.J., Flora of New Zealand Lichens: i-
lxxiii, 1-662 [172-173], Wellington (1985); Harris R.C., Some Florida
Lichens: 1-109 (1990); Redinger K.M., Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 9:
37-122 (1936); Makhija B., Akawadkar B., Patwardhan P.G.,
Biovignyanam 18: 21-32 (1992); Orange A. in: Purvis O.W. et al.
(eds), The Lichen Flora of Great Britain and Ireland, London (1992);
Vainio E.A., Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., Ser. A: 1-368 (1921); Wirth M.
& Hale M.E., Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 36: 63-119 (1966); Wirth M.
& Hale M.E., Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 40: 1-64 (1978).

Biogeography: Checklist records: Germany, Great Britain, Guianas, Italy, New Zealand, Sonoran Desert, Thailand, United States and Canada (continental), and Republic of South Africa.

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized; corticolous; substrate non-calciferous.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont present; trentepohlioid. Secondary photobiont absent.

Thallus: Indistinct or crustose, not subdivided parts. Upper Surface: Grey, green, white, olive, or brownish yellow; special structures absent or present:; not pseudocyphellate; eciliate; without hairs; not isidate or isidiate; not sorediate; not cephalodiate; not lobulate; without granules granules, without thalloconidia thalloconidia. Lower Surface: Attached by the whole lower surface; special structures absent.

Reproduction Strategy: Only known as sterile, asexually reproducing form or with sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Apothecioid, linear, forming all across the thallus surface, not emerging, becoming adnate to soon sessile. Margin: Distinct to prominent; external filaments absent. Exciple: Black, brown, white, or brownish yellow. Periphyses: Absent. Epithecium: Apical cells brown, red, hyaline, or brownish yellow. Hymenium: Oil inspersed, iodine reaction: Lugol’s negative, not hemiamyloid. Interascal Hyphae: Present, scarcely branched, not or scarcely anastomosed. Hypothecium: Black, brown, white, or brownish yellow.

Asci: Tholus thickened, not amyloid; exoascus not amyloid, not hemiamyloid.

Ascospores: 1–2 to c. 8 per ascus, ellipsoid, 7-180 µm long, 5-40 µm wide, obtuse; septa present; both transversally and longitudinally, 1-39-transversally septate, formed by the endospore wall layer; wall thin or thick, distinctly differentiated into primary and secondary wall, not thickened at the septum, hyaline, in Lugol's Solution negative or in Lugol's Solution positive, wall not ornamented.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present; pycnidial; formed all accross the thallus surface.

Conidia: Globose or bacilliform.

Secondary Metabolites: Present, of the following substance class(es): ß-orcinol depsides, ß-orcinol depsidones, (tri-)terpenoids, (anthra-)quinones, and xanthones.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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