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Caloplaca Th. Fr. (1860)

Data Set Maintenance: Data set standard item. Data set author(s): Rambold G. Data set reviewer(s): Aptroot A. (--> Soechting 00-12-02), Poelt J. (95-03-14), and Scholz P. (06-06-12); revised; to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted or basionymous. Taxonomic rank: genus. Number of known taxa within this rank: 350 (estimation provided by A. Aptroot 99-09-27). Caloplaca. Synonyms: Leproplaca (Nyl.) Nyl. ex Hue; Teloschistaceae Zahlbr. (1898); Teloschistineae; Lecanorales.

Type Information: Type: Caloplaca cerina (Ehrh. ex Hedw.) Th. Fr.

Taxonomic Literature: Arup U., Bryologist 95: 148-160 (1992); Arup U., Bryologist 95: 449-457 (1992); Arup U., Bryologist 98: 92-111 (1995); Arup U., Bryologist 98: 129-140 (1995); Bratli H. & Haugan R., Graphis Scripta 8: 41-43 (1997); Clauzade G. & Roux C., Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, N.S. 7: 1-893 [226-265] (1985); Egea J.M., Collectanea Botanica 13: 173-204 (1984); Galloway D.J., Flora of New Zealand. Lichens: 1-662 [60-70] (1985); Giralt M., Nimis P.L. & Poelt J., Cryptog. Bryol. Lichénol. 13: 261-273 (1992); Hafellner J. & Poelt J., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 46: 1-41 (1979); Hansen E.S., Poelt J. & Søchting U., Meddel. Grønland, Biosci. 25: 1-52 (1987); Kärnefelt I., Cryptog. Bot. 1: 147-203 (1989); Kärnefelt I., Lichenologist 22: 307-320 (1990); Kondratyuk S.Y.A. & Zelenko S.D., Ukrayins'k. Bot. Zhurn. 59(5): 598-607 (2002); Laundon J.R. in: Purvis O.W., Coppins B.J., Hawksworth D.L., James P.W. & Moore D.M. (eds), The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland: 1-710 [141-159] (1992); Malme, xxxSüdamerika-Paperxxx; Magnusson A.H., Göteb. Kungl. Vetensk. Vitter. Handl. Sjätte Följden Ser. B. 3(1): 1-71 (1944); Nimis P.L., Not. Soc. Lichenol. Ital. 5: 9-28 (1992); Nimis P.L., Tretiach M. & Poelt J., Bryologist 97: 182-185 (1994); Nordin I., Caloplaca sect. Gasparrinia i Nordeuropa. Taxonomiska och ekologiska studier, Uppsala: 1-184 (1972); Poelt J., Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 2: 11-31 (1954); Poelt J. & Hinteregger E., Biblioth. Lichenol. 50: 1-247 (1993); Poelt J. & Pelleter U., Pl. Syst. Evol. 148: 51-88 (1984); Rambold G. & Triebel D., Biblioth. Lichenol. 48: 1-201 [96-101] (1992); Wetmore C.M., Mycologia 86: 813-838 (1994); Wetmore C.M., Bryologist 99: 292-314 (1996); Wunder H., Biblioth. Lichenol. 3: 1-186 (1974).

Biogeography: Checklist records: Austria, Bolivia, Germany, Great Britain, Guianas, Italy, New Guinea, New Zealand, Sonoran Desert, Sweden and Norway, Thailand, United States and Canada (continental), Namibia, and Republic of South Africa.

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized or lichenicolous; terricolous, bryophytic, lignicolous, or corticolous; substrate non-calciferous or calciferous.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont present; chlorococcal. Primary photobiont taxonomy: Trebouxia (A. Beck 22-05-97); Trebouxiaceae; Trebouxiales, Trebouxiophyceae, Eukariota. Secondary photobiont absent.

Thallus: Indistinct or crustose, not subdivided parts, leprose, granular, rimose, areolate (primarily areolate), placodioid, squamulose, or subfruticose. Thallus Outline: Soon disappearing. Upper Surface: White, grey, red, pink (rosé), green, olive, yellow, brownish yellow, or orange; special structures absent or present:; not pseudocyphellate or pseudocyphellate; eciliate; without hairs; not isidate or isidiate; not sorediate or sorediate; not cephalodiate; not lobulate; without granules granules, without thalloconidia thalloconidia. Lower Surface: Attached by the whole lower surface or attached by holdfasts; special structures absent or present:; not pseudocyphellate; not cyphellate; not rhizinate or rhizinate; without thalloconidia thalloconidia; not cavernulate; not tomentose.

Reproduction Strategy: Only known as sterile, asexually reproducing form or with sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Apothecioid, orbicular, forming all across the thallus surface, not emerging, becoming adnate to soon sessile. Margin: Distinct to prominent; external filaments absent. Exciple: White or orange. Periphyses: Absent. Epithecium: Apical cells orange. Interascal Hyphae: Present, scarcely branched, not or scarcely anastomosed. Hypothecium: White.

Asci: Tholus thickened, amyloid, entirely amyloid throughout; dehiscence lecanoralean.

Ascospores: c. 4 to 12-16 per ascus, ellipsoid or oblong-obtuse, (9)-10-30 µm long, 3-12 µm wide, obtuse; septa absent or present (in some cases real); wall thin, not thickened at the septum or thickened at the septum, hyaline, in Lugol's Solution negative, wall not ornamented.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present; pycnidial; immersed, formed all accross the thallus surface.

Conidiogeneous Cells: Apical. Conidia: Globose.

Secondary Metabolites: Present, of the following substance class(es): (anthra-)quinones.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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