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Arthonia Ach. (1806)

Data Set Maintenance: Data set standard item. Data set author(s): Rambold G. Data set reviewer(s): N. N., Grube M. (95-12-05), Scholz P. (06-06-12), and Triebel D. (98-01-01; 00-03-11; 00-6-12; 00-11-1; 01-08-12; 02-06-22); revised; to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted or basionymous. Taxonomic rank: genus. Number of known taxa within this rank: 400 (A. Aptroot 99-09-27). Arthonia. Synonyms: Bryostigma Döbbeler; Arthoniaceae Reichenb. (1841); Arthoniales.

Type Information: Type: Arthonia radiata (Pers.) Ach.

Taxonomic Literature: Almquist S., Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl. 17(6): 3-69 (1880); Alstrup V. & Cole M.S., Bryologist 101(2): 221-229 (1998); Alstrup V. & Hansen E.S., Graphis Scripta 12: 41-50 (2001); Alstrup V. & Hawksworth D.L., Meddel. Grønland, Biosci. 31: 1-90 [15-18] (1990); Alstrup V. & Olech M., Fragm. Flor. Geobot. 41: 747-752 (1996); Aptroot A., Diederich P., Sérusiaux E. & Sipman H.J.M. in: Knoph J.-G.,Schrüfer K. & Sipman H.J.M (eds), Biblioth. Lichenol. 57: 19-48 [23-24, 45, 47] (1995); Aptroot A., Diederich P., Sérusiaux E. & Sipman H.J.M., Biblioth. Lichenol. 64: 1-220 [18-20] (1997); Calatayud V., Atienza V. & Barreno E., Mycotaxon 55: 363-382 [366-369] (1995); Clauzade G. & Roux C., Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, N.S. 7: 1-893 [160-168] (1985); Diederich P. in: Daniels F.J.A., Schulz M. & Peine J. (eds), Flechten Follmann: 179-182, Cologne (1995); Clauzade G., Diederich P. & Roux C., Bull. Soc. Linn. Provençe, N.S. 1: 1-142 [26-31] (1989); Coppins B.J., Lichenologist 21: 195-216 [211-215] (1989); Coppins B.J. in: Purvis O.W., Coppins B.J., Hawksworth D.L., James P.W. & Moore D.M. (eds), The lichen flora of Great Britain and Ireland: 1-710 [74-88] (1992); Egea J.M. & Torrente P. in: Daniels F.J.A., Schulz M. & Peine J. (eds), Flechten Follmann: 193-204, Cologne (1995); Etayo J., Bull. Soc. Linn. Provençe 47: 93-110 [95-98] (1996); Etayo J., Biblioth. Lichenol. 84:1-154 [23-32] (2002);Etayo J. & Breuss O., Österr. Z. Pilzk. 7: 203-213 (1998); Follmann G. & Werner B.C., J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 94: 261-292 (2003); Galloway D.J., Flora of New Zealand. Lichens: 1-662 [10-14] (1985); Grube M. & Matzer M., Biblioth. Lichenol. 68: 1-17 (1997); Grube M., Matzer M. & Hafellner J., Lichenologist 27: 25-42 (1995); Hafellner J., Linzer Biol. Beitr. 33(1): 507-532 (1999); Johansson P. & Wågström K., Graphis Scripta 8: 57-60 (1997); Jørgensen P.M. & Tønsberg T., Nordic J. Bot. 8. 293- 304 (1988); Kalb K., Hafellner J. & Staiger B., Biblioth. Lichenol. 59: 199-222 [201-202, fig. 1-3] (1995); Kocourková J., Acta Mus. Nat. Pragae, Ser. B., Hist. Nat. 55 (3-4): 59-169 [66-67] (2000); Kondratyuk, S.Y. in: Wasser, S.P. (ed.), Botany and mycology for the next millenium. Collection of scientific articles devoted to the 70th anniversary of Academician K.M. Sytnik: 309-315 (1996); Kondratyuk S.Y.A. & Zelenko S.D., Ukrayins'k. Bot. Zhurn. 59(5): 598-607 (2002); Lücking R., Lichenologist 31(3): 269-289 (1999); Lücking R. & Kalb K., Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 139: 171-180 (2002); Matzer M., Mycol. Pap. 171: 1- 202 [28-53, 173-177] (1996); Martínez Moreno M.I., Ruzia 15: 1-200 [161, 165] (1999); Redinger K., Rabenh. Kryptog.-Fl. 9: 1 180 (1937); Renobales G., Guineana 2: 1-310 [49-50] (1996); Santesson R., Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 1-590 [68-91] (1952); Santesson R., The lichens and lichenicolous fungi of Sweden and Norway, Lund: 1- 240 [15-18] (1993); Sundin R. & Tehler A., Lichenologist 30(4- 5): 381-413 (1998); Tehler A., Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2458-2492 (1990); Triebel D., Biblioth. Lichenol. 35: 1-278 [53-64] (1989); Wedin M., Lichenologist 25: 301-303 (1993); Wedin M. & Hafellner J., Lichenologist 30: 59-91 (1998); Wedin M. & Kondratyuk S. Y., Lichenologist 29: 97-99 (1997); Willey H., A synopsis of the genus Arthonia: 1-62 (1890); Zhurbenko M.P. & Alstrup V.,. Acta Univ. Upsal. Symb. Bot. Upsal. 34(1): 477-499 (2004).

Biogeography: Checklist records: Australia, Austria, Bolivia, Germany, Great Britain, Guianas, Italy, New Guinea, New Zealand, Sonoran Desert, Sweden and Norway, Thailand, United States and Canada (continental), and Republic of South Africa.

Ecology: Saprobic or biotroph (a few taxa cecidogenous); lichenized or lichenicolous (a few taxa cecidogenous); terricolous, bryophytic, lignicolous, corticolous, or epiphyllous; substrate non-calciferous or calciferous.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont absent or present; chlorococcal and trentepohlioid. Primary photobiont taxonomy: Phycopeltis and Trentepohlia (A. Beck 22-05-97); Trentepohliaceae; Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae, Eukariota. Secondary photobiont absent.

Thallus: Indistinct or crustose, not subdivided parts, leprose, granular, or rimose. Thallus Outline: Soon disappearing or persistent. Upper Surface: White, grey, pink (rosé), or brownish yellow; special structures absent. Lower Surface: Attached by the whole lower surface; special structures absent or present:; not pseudocyphellate; not cyphellate; not rhizinate; without thalloconidia thalloconidia; not cavernulate; not tomentose.

Medulla: Iodine reaction in Lugol's solution negative; reacting violet-red without and distinctly blue with KOH pre-treatment (hemiamyloid).

Reproduction Strategy: Only known as sterile, asexually reproducing form or with sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Apothecioid, orbicular, irregular, linear, or stellate, forming all across the thallus surface, not emerging, becoming adnate to soon sessile. Margin: Indistinct; external filaments absent or present. Exciple: White, grey, black, red, brownish yellow, brown, or orange. Epithecium: Apical cells hyaline, black, red, green, olive, brownish yellow, brown, or orange. Hymenium: Iodine reaction: Lugol’s positive, hemiamyloid. Interascal Hyphae: Present, scarcely branched to distinctly branched, not or scarcely anastomosed to distinctly anastomosed. Hypothecium: White, black, red, green, olive, yellow, brownish yellow, brown, or orange.

Asci: Tholus thickened, not amyloid or amyloid, with amyloid tube or with amyloid cap; ocular chamber broad; dehiscence bitunicate; exoascus not amyloid, hemiamyloid.

Ascospores: 1–2 to 12-16 per ascus, globose, ellipsoid (in some taxa narrowly), ovoid, oblong-obtuse, fusiform, filiform, or clavate, 5-32 µm long, 1.5-27 µm wide, obtuse or aciculate; septa present; transversally septate, 1-7-transversally septate; wall thin or thick, distinctly differentiated into primary and secondary wall, not thickened at the septum, laterally constricted where the septum meets the spore wall, hyaline, pale brown, or dark brown, in Lugol's Solution negative or in Lugol's Solution positive (hemiamyloid), wall not ornamented or ornamented.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present; pycnidial or campylidial; immersed, formed all accross the thallus surface.

Conidiogeneous Cells: Apical. Conidia: Globose, ellipsoid, bacilliform, or filiform; microconidial or macroconidial (of Subhysteropycnis-type), not branched or branched; aseptate (microconidia) or septate (macroconida uniseptatae); 0-1-septate; cell wall hyaline.

Secondary Metabolites: Not detected or present, of the following substance class(es): (anthra-)quinones, orcinol depsides, ß-orcinol depsides, and xanthones.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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