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Anema Nyl. ex Forssell (1885)

Data Set Maintenance: Data set standard item. Data set author(s): Rambold G. Data set reviewer(s): Schultz M. (00-03-02) and Scholz P. (02-05-13); revised; to be published after submission.

Nomenclature: Current taxonomic status: accepted or basionymous. Taxonomic rank: genus. Number of known taxa within this rank: 10 (estimation provided by A. Aptroot 99-09-27). Anema. Synonyms: Omphalaria A. Massal.; Lichinaceae Nyl. (1854); Lichinales.

Type Information: Type: Anema decipiens (A. Massal.) Forssell.

Taxonomic Literature: Clauzade G. & Roux C., Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest N.S. - Numero
Special 7: 1-893 [159] (1985); Henssen A., Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges.
92: 483-506 (1980) ['1979']; Henssen A. & Jørgensen P.M.,
Lichenologist 22: 137-147 (1990); Jørgensen P.M. & Santesson R., Taxon 38: 303-304 (1989); Morreno P.P. & Egea J.M., Acta Bot. Barc. 41: 1-66 (1992); Poelt J., Bestimmungsschlüssel Europäischer Flechten: 1-757 [108-109] (1969); Schultz M. in: Nash T.H. III et al. (eds), Lichen Flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region vol. 1: 97-98, Tempe (2002);.

Biogeography: Checklist records: Austria, Germany, Italy, Sonoran Desert, Sweden and Norway, and United States and Canada (continental).

Ecology: Biotroph; lichenized; substrate calciferous.

Lichen Photobionts: Primary photobiont present; cyanobacterial. Primary photobiont taxonomy: Chroococcidiopsis and Gloeocapsa (A. Beck 19-05-97); Microcystaceae and Xenococcaceae; Chroococcales, Cyanobacteria, Prokaryota. Secondary photobiont absent.

Thallus: Crustose or foliose, not subdivided parts, squamulose, subfruticose, or granular, peltate, umbilicate. Thallus Outline: Soon disappearing. Upper Surface: Black or grey; special structures absent or present:; not pseudocyphellate; eciliate; without hairs; not isidate or isidiate; not sorediate; not cephalodiate; not lobulate; without granules or with granules granules, without thalloconidia thalloconidia. Lower Surface: Attached by the whole lower surface (sometimes apparently so) or attached by holdfasts; special structures absent.

Medulla: Iodine reaction in Lugol's solution negative; not different with or without KOH pre-treatment (euamyloid).

Reproduction Strategy: Only known as sterile, asexually reproducing form or with sexual (and possible asexual) stages. Ascocarps: Apothecioid, orbicular, forming all across the thallus surface, becoming adnate to soon sessile. Wall: Not carbonized, not fused. Margin: Distinct; external filaments absent. Exciple: White. Periphyses: Absent. Epithecium: Apical cells brownish yellow. Hymenium: Iodine reaction: Lugol’s negative, hemiamyloid. Interascal Hyphae: Present, scarcely branched, not or scarcely anastomosed. Hypothecium: White.

Asci: Tholus not thickened, not amyloid; ocular chamber indistinct; dehiscence prototunicate; exoascus not amyloid, not hemiamyloid.

Ascospores: c. 8 to 12-16 per ascus, globose, broadly ellipsoid, or ellipsoid, 8-14 µm long, 4-11 µm wide, obtuse; septa absent; wall thin, not thickened at the septum, hyaline, in Lugol's Solution negative, wall not ornamented.

Conidiomata: Absent resp. not observed or present; pycnidial; immersed, formed all accross the thallus surface.

Conidiogeneous Cells: Apical. Conidia: Ellipsoid or bacilliform; microconidial, not branched; aseptate; cell wall hyaline.

Secondary Metabolites: Not detected.

(report generated 04.Okt.2007)

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