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Botanische Staatssammlung München © 1995–2005
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Go to: Data maintenance    Nomenclature: Taxonomic Hierarchy    Nomenclature: Type Information    Nomenclature: Taxonomic Literature    Biogeography    Ecology    Host or Phorophyte Taxonomy    Lichen Photobionts    Thallus Morphology: General Morphology    Thallus Morphology: Outline    Thallus Morphology: Upper Thallus Surface    Thallus Anatomy: Upper Cortex    Thallus Anatomy: Medulla    Reproduction    Ascocarp Morphology: General Ascocarp Morphology    Ascocarp Morphology: Wall    Ascocarp Morphology: Margin    Ascocarp Morphology: Disk    Ascocarp Anatomy: Exciple    Ascocarp Anatomy: General Amphithecium Anatomy    Ascocarp Anatomy: Amphithecial Cortex    Ascocarp Anatomy: Periphyses    Ascocarp Anatomy: Episamma    Ascocarp Anatomy: Epithecium    Ascocarp Anatomy: Hymenium    Ascocarp Anatomy: Interascal Hyphae    Ascocarp Anatomy: Subhymenium    Ascocarp Anatomy: Hypothecium    Ascocarp Anatomy: Asci    Ascocarp Anatomy: Ascospores    Conidioma Morphology    Conidioma Anatomy: Pycnidia    Conidioma Anatomy: Conidia    Chemistry: Secondary Metabolites    Chemistry: Spot Tests    Index of all items of the project


Taxon name:



Data maintenance   back to top

1. Data set source [mandatory] [mandatory character]     1. authentic     2. compiled     3. template     5. standard item
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2. Data set author(s) [mandatory] [mandatory character]     18. Egea J. M. & Torrente P.  None selected () ()
5. Data set publication permission [mandatory character]     1. no     2. yes  None selected () ()
6. Data set publication date



Nomenclature: Taxonomic Hierarchy   back to top

7. Current taxonomic status     1. accepted     2. basionymous
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8. Taxonomic rank [mandatory] [mandatory character]     2. species  None selected () ()
11. Genus name [mandatory] [mandatory character] () ()
12. Synonyms


13. Family name [mandatory] [mandatory character]     1. genus of unknown placement (incertae sedis)     88. Opegraphaceae Stizenb. (1862)  None selected () ()
14. Suborder name     1. family of unknown placement (incertae sedis)  None selected () ()
15. Order name     2. Arthoniales  None selected () ()

Nomenclature: Type Information   back to top

17. Type [mandatory character]


19. Protologue


20. Type specimen label data



Nomenclature: Taxonomic Literature   back to top

21. Taxonomic notes


22. Taxonomic literature



Biogeography   back to top

27. Continent distribution [mandatory] [mandatory character]     1. Africa     2. Antarctica     3. Asia-Temperate     4. Australasia     5. Europe     6. Northern America     7. Southern America     8. Pacific     9. Asia-Tropical
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38. Checklist records [mandatory]     12. Iberic Peninsula     20. Sonoran Desert
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Ecology   back to top

43. Life habit    ()  2. biotroph (inhabiting living organisms) ()
44. Lifestyle [mandatory] [mandatory character]     4. lichenized (= parasitic and / or mutual symbiotic with photobionts)     5. lichenicolous (= parasitic on lichens)
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45. Substrate preference [mandatory character]     1. terricolous (on soil)     2. bryophytic (on bryophytes)     3. lignicolous (on wood)     4. corticolous (on bark)
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46. Thallus-substrate interaction     1. endosubstratic     3. episubstratic
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47. Habitat insolation     1. sun-exposed     2. partially shaded     3. fully shaded
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48. Habitat moisture     1. dry     2. moist     3. wet
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53. Rock substrate mineral content     1. non-calciferous (lacking calcites)     2. calciferous (containing calcites)
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Host or Phorophyte Taxonomy   back to top

71. Host fungus or lichen species



Lichen Photobionts   back to top

79. Primary photobiont presence     1. absent     2. present
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80. Primary photobiont kind     1. cyanobacterial     2. chlorococcal     3. trentepohlioid
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Thallus Morphology: General Morphology   back to top

104. Thallus growth form [mandatory character]     1. indistinct     2. crustose
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105. Thallus primary subdivision    ()  1. continuous ()
108. Crustose growth organization     1. leprose     2. granular     3. rimose     5. areolate (primarily areolate)
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133. Thallus parts thickness [categorical]     1. thin     2. thick
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134. Thallus parts thickness [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
mm thick


Thallus Morphology: Outline   back to top

168. Primal thallus persistence     1. disappearing     2. persistent
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169. Primal thallus development     1. vestigial     2. pronounced
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Thallus Morphology: Upper Thallus Surface   back to top

172. Upper surface colour     2. white     3. pale grey (= greyish white, whitish grey)     4. grey     9. grey-red (= greyish red, reddish grey)     10. brownish red (= reddish brown)     15. grey-green (= greyish green, greenish gray)     16. brownish green (= greenish brown, incl. olive, olivaceous)     24. yellow     26. grey-yellow (= greyish yellow, yellowish grey)     27. brownish yellow (= yellowish brown)     32. grey-brown (= greyish brown, brownish grey)
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176. Upper surface roughness     1. smooth     2. rough
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177. Upper surface texture    ()  2. pulverulaceous ()
178. Upper surface special structures: presence     1. absent     2. present:
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196. Upper surface pruina: presence     1. epruinose     2. pruinose
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198. Upper surface pruina: colour     4. greenish     5. yellowish     7. reddish     8. whitish
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225. Upper surface hairs: presence     1. absent     2. present
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252. Upper surface soralia: presence     1. absent     2. present
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264. Upper surface soralia: differentiation     1. not confluent     2. confluent (but not fusing)
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Thallus Anatomy: Upper Cortex   back to top

329. Upper cortex: presence     1. absent     2. present
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331. Upper cortex height [percentage]
Mean: Unit:
% of thallus width

332. Upper cortex height [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm high


Thallus Anatomy: Medulla   back to top

393. Medulla euamyloid reactivity     1. in Lugol's solution negative     2. in Lugol's solution positive
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394. Medulla hemiamyloid reactivity     1. not hemiamyloid     2. hemiamyloid
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395. Medulla iodine reaction intensity     1. weakly euamyloid     2. strongly euamyloid
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396. Medulla iodine reaction colour     1. I + blue     2. I + violet     3. I + red     4. I + reddish yellow
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Reproduction   back to top

414. Ascomata presence [mandatory] [mandatory character]     1. absent     2. present
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Ascocarp Morphology: General Ascocarp Morphology   back to top

418. Ascocarp structure [mandatory character]     1. apothecioid     2. perithecioid     3. cleistothecioid
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420. Ascocarp outline     1. orbicular     3. irregular     4. linear     5. stellate
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426. Ascocarp host dependency     1. host-independent     2. host-dependent
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427. Ascocarp location {on host}     5. within the ascocarp margin of the host     6. within the ascocarp disks of the host
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428. Ascocarp emergence    ()  1. not emerging (immersed, e.g., cryptolecanorine, cryptolecideine, aspicilioid) ()
429. Ascocarp attachment     1. adnate (semi-immersed)     2. sessile
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430. Ascocarp basis     1. not constricted (flat below)     2. slightly constricted (moderately conical at the base)     3. strongly constricted (strongly conical at the base)
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431. Ascocarp abundance [categorical]     1. sparse     2. moderately abundant     3. abundant
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436. Ascocarp ascostroma formation     2. pseudostromatic     3. stromatic
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438. {orbicular} ascocarp diameter [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
mm in diam.


Ascocarp Morphology: Wall   back to top

443. Ascocarp wall: carbonization     1. not carbonized     2. carbonized only in parts     3. carbonized around the ostiole, lacking a clypeus     4. with a carbonized black clypeus around the ostiole
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444. Ascocarp wall: fusion {of neighboured perithecia}     1. absent     2. present
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Ascocarp Morphology: Margin   back to top

448. Ascocarp margin: structure     4. crenulate     5. granulose
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449. Ascocarp margin: roughness    ()  1. smooth ()
451. Ascocarp margin: persistency     1. persistent     2. excluded
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452. Ascocarp margin: development     1. indistinct (thin)     2. distinct (moderately thickened)     3. prominent (thick)
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453. Ascocarp margin: colour     3. pale grey (= greyish white, whitish grey)     6. black     7. red     10. brownish red (= reddish brown)     13. green     24. yellow     27. brownish yellow (= yellowish brown)     30. brown     31. pale brown (= brownish white, whitish brown)
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457. Ascocarp margin: width [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm wide

458. Ascocarp margin: pruina abundance     1. epruinose     2. slightly pruinose     3. distinctly pruinose
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462. Ascocarp margin: surface structures presence     1. absent     2. present
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468. Ascocarp margin: external filaments presence     1. absent     2. present
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Ascocarp Morphology: Disk   back to top

487. Ascocarp disk: curvature     1. urceolate (strongly concave)     2. excavate (concave)     3. plane (expanded)     4. weakly convex     5. strongly convex
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488. Ascocarp disk: colour     6. black     8. pale red (= reddish white, whitish red, incl. pink, rosé)     30. brown     31. pale brown (= brownish white, whitish brown)
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489. Ascocarp disk: exposure     1. not exposed     3. fully exposed
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491. Ascocarp disk: pruina presence     1. absent     2. present
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492. Ascocarp disk: pruina abundance     1. scarce     2. abundant
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493. Ascocarp disk: pruina colour     1. white     2. yellow greenish     3. green     4. yellow     5. red     6. brownish red (= reddish brown)     7. pale grey (= whitish grey, greyish white)
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Ascocarp Anatomy: Exciple   back to top

497. Ascocarp excipulum: plectenchyma structure    ()  2. paraplectenchymatous ()
498. Ascocarp excipulum: hyphal orientation     1. parallel (radiating outwards)     2. net-like (intricately interwoven, with no predominant orientation)     3. not easily discerned (strongly gelatinized or carbonized)
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504. Ascocarp excipulum: pigment carbonization     1. biatorine (not carbonized)     2. lecideine (carbonized)
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505. Ascocarp excipulum: layer pigmentation     2. white     4. grey     6. black     10. brownish red (= reddish brown)     13. green     16. brownish green (= greenish brown, incl. olive, olivaceous)     27. brownish yellow (= yellowish brown)     31. pale brown (= brownish white, whitish brown)
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506. Ascocarp excipulum: crystal inspersion     1. not inspersed with crystals     2. inspersed with crystals
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Ascocarp Anatomy: General Amphithecium Anatomy   back to top

559. Amphithecial photobiont abundance     1. absent     2. sparse (eulecanorine)     3. abundant
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Ascocarp Anatomy: Amphithecial Cortex   back to top

566. Amphithecial cortex presence     1. absent     2. present
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567. Amphithecial cortex development     1. indistinct     2. distinct
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Ascocarp Anatomy: Periphyses   back to top

613. Periphyses presence     1. absent     2. present
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Ascocarp Anatomy: Episamma   back to top

622. Episamma presence     1. absent     2. present
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626. Episamma solubility     1. dissolving in 10% KOH     2. not dissolving in 10% KOH
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Ascocarp Anatomy: Epithecium   back to top

627. Epithecium presence     1. absent     2. present
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629. Epithecium height [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm high

633. Epithecial hyphae apical cell: width [categorical]     1. not swollen     2. slightly swollen     3. distinctly swollen
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634. Epithecial hyphae apical cell: width [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm wide

638. Epithecial hyphae apical cell: pigment location     1. pigment cap (within the cell wall)     3. diffuse (outside the cell wall)
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639. Epithecial hyphae apical cell pigmentation {in H2O}     1. hyaline (translucent)     10. brownish red (= reddish brown)     16. brownish green (= greenish brown, incl. olive, olivaceous)     30. brown     31. pale brown (= brownish white, whitish brown)     33. dark brown (= brownish black, blackish brown)
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Ascocarp Anatomy: Hymenium   back to top

650. Hymenium persistence    ()  2. mazaedioid (asci soon disintregating) ()
653. Hymenium height [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm high

654. Hymenium pigmentation {in H2O}     2. white     25. pale yellow (= whitish yellow, yellowish white, incl. lemon, citrine)     31. pale brown (= brownish white, whitish brown)
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667. Hymenium euamyloid reaction     1. Lugol’s negative     2. Lugol’s positive
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668. Hymenium hemiamyloid reaction     1. not hemiamyloid     2. hemiamyloid
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Ascocarp Anatomy: Interascal Hyphae   back to top

673. Interascal hyphae presence     1. absent     2. present
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676. Interascal hyphae ramification     1. scarcely branched     2. distinctly branched
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677. Interascal hyphae anastomoses     1. not or scarcely anastomosed     2. distinctly anastomosed
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681. Interascal hyphae cell width [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm wide


Ascocarp Anatomy: Subhymenium   back to top

684. Subhymenium height [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm high

699. Subhymenium pigmentation {in H2O}     2. white     3. pale grey (= greyish white, whitish grey)     10. brownish red (= reddish brown)     30. brown     31. pale brown (= brownish white, whitish brown)
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Ascocarp Anatomy: Hypothecium   back to top

707. Hypothecium height [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm high

708. Hypothecium pigmentation {in H2O}     2. white     4. grey     6. black     10. brownish red (= reddish brown)     13. green     16. brownish green (= greenish brown, incl. olive, olivaceous)     27. brownish yellow (= yellowish brown)     31. pale brown (= brownish white, whitish brown)
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711. Hypothecium pigment pattern     1. homogenous     2. inhomogenous
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Ascocarp Anatomy: Asci   back to top

751. Ascus shape     1. globose     4. broadly clavate     5. clavate     6. narrowly clavate     8. cylindrical
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752. Ascus stipitation     1. absent     2. indistinct     3. distinct
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753. Ascus length [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm long

754. Ascus width [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm wide

757. Ascus tholus thickness     1. not thickened     2. thickened
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758. Ascus tholus iodine reactivity     1. Lugol’s negative     2. Lugol’s positive
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759. Ascus tholus iodine reaction kind     1. hemiamyloid     2. euamyloid
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760. Ascus tholus iodine reaction colour     1. + red     2. + light blue     3. + dark blue
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761. Ascus tholus amyloidy pattern     1. with amyloid tube     2. with amyloid cap
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767. Ascus ocular chamber presence     1. absent     2. present
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768. Ascus ocular chamber development     1. indistinct     2. narrow     3. broad
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769. Ascus dehiscence type     1. prototunicate     2. lecanoralean     3. unitunicate     4. verrucarial     5. bitunicate
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780. Endoascus {hemiamyloid} reactivity     1. not hemiamyloid     2. inner layer hemiamyloid     3. all layers hemiamyloid
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Ascocarp Anatomy: Ascospores   back to top

784. Ascospore number [categorical]     2. c. 4 per ascus     3. c. 8 per ascus
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786. Ascospore shape     1. globose     4. ellipsoid     5. broadly ellipsoid     6. ovoid     10. oblong-obtuse     11. oblong     13. cylindrical     16. fusiform     17. filiform     23. clavate     28. semilunate     31. reniform (incl. fabiform)     32. curved     35. allantoid     36. bifusiform (incl. biclavate)     39. irregular
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787. Ascospore length [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm long

788. Ascospore width [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm wide

790. Ascospore attenuation     1. obtuse     2. aciculate
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792. Ascospore septum presence     1. absent     2. present
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795. Ascospore {median} septum number [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
-transversally septate

800. Ascospore cell lumen size [categorical]     1. even (all cells of equal size)     2. constricted in the centre (apically and basally enlarged)     3. tapered (swollen in the centre)
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802. Ascospore wall width [categorical]     1. thin     2. thick
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804. Ascospore wall differentiation {visible in the light microscope}    ()  2. distinctly differentiated (into primary and secondary wall) ()
808. Ascospore wall lateral septal constrictions     1. absent     2. present
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809. Ascospore wall pigment development     1. remaining hyaline     2. becoming pigmented
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810. Ascospore wall pigmentation     1. hyaline (translucent)     4. pale brown (= brownish white, whitish brown)     5. middle brown     7. dark brown (= brownish black, blackish brown)
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812. Ascospore perispore ornamentation     1. not ornamented (psilate, smooth)     2. ornamented
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814. Ascospore mucilaginous sheath width [categorical]     1. indistinctly halonate (mucilaginous sheath absent or thin)     2. distinctly halonate (with a thick mucilaginous sheath)
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Conidioma Morphology   back to top

816. Conidiomata presence [mandatory character]     1. absent     2. present
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817. Conidiomata kind     1. pycnidial     2. hyphomycetous     3. hyphophorous     4. campylidial
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818. Conidiomata abundance     1. sparse     2. moderately abundant     3. strongly abundant
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819. Conidiomata exposure     1. immersed     2. adnate (semi-immersed)     3. sessile     4. stipitate
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820. Conidiomata length [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm long

821. Conidiomata width [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm wide


Conidioma Anatomy: Pycnidia   back to top

833. Pycnidium shape     1. globular     2. subglobular     6. pyriform
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835. Pycnidium compartmentalization     1. unilocular     2. plurilocular
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836. Pycnidium wall distinctiveness     1. indistinct     2. distinct
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838. Pycnidium wall pigmentation     1. hyaline (translucent)     30. brown     31. pale brown (= brownish white, whitish brown)     33. dark brown (= brownish black, blackish brown)
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849. Pycnidium ostiole pigmentation     6. black     10. brownish red (= reddish brown)     30. brown
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Conidioma Anatomy: Conidia   back to top

873. Conidium shape     1. globose     4. ellipsoid     11. bacilliform     16. fusiform     17. filiform     32. reniform     33. curved     39. sigmoid
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874. Conidium size [categorical]     1. microconidial     3. macroconidial
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879. Conidium length [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm long

880. Conidium width [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
µm wide

882. Conidium septation: presence     1. absent     2. present
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884. {transversal} conidium septation [numerical]
Min: Lower range: Mean: Upper range: Max: Unit:
-septate

886. Conidium cell wall pigmentation     1. hyaline (translucent)     2. pigmented
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Chemistry: Secondary Metabolites   back to top

913. Known secondary metabolites: presence     1. absent     2. present
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915. Known secondary metabolites: name     52. 2'-O-demethylpsoromic acid     224. arthoniaic acid     225. arthonin     226. arthothelin (2,4,5-trichloronorlichexanthone)     231. atranorin     249. chiodectonic acid     258. confluentic acid     262. connorstictic acid     300. erythrin     336. gyrophoric acid     382. lecanoric acid     388. lepraric acid     470. norstictic acid     489. pannaric acid     496. perlatolic acid     512. protocetraric acid     521. psoromic acid     533. roccellic acid     542. schizopeltic acid     549. skyrin
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916. Known secondary metabolites: substance class     1. amino acid derivatives     2. (higher) aliphatic acids     3. (anthra-)quinones     4. benzyl esters     5. chromones     6. dibenzofurans [and usnic acids]     7. diphenyl ethers     8. orcinol depsides     9. orcinol depsidones     10. ß-orcinol depsides [incl. atranorin]     11. ß-orcinol depsidones     12. pulvinic acid derivatives     13. secalonic acids     14. (tri-)terpenoids     15. xanthones
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917. Unknown secondary metabolites: presence     1. absent     2. present
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921. Calcium oxalate crystals: presence     1. absent     2. present
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Chemistry: Spot Tests   back to top

926. Spot test reactions     1. absent     2. present
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927. Upper surface K reactivity     1. – (negative)     2. + deep yellow     4. + yellow changing to red     5. + red
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928. Upper surface C reactivity     1. –     3. + bright yellow     5. + red
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930. Upper surface KC reactivity     1. –     2. + deep yellow     4. + yellow changing to red     5. + red
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931. Upper surface PD reactivity     1. –     2. + yellow     5. + red     8. + orange
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932. Cortex K reactivity     1. –     2. + deep yellow     4. + yellow changing to red     5. + red
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933. Cortex C reactivity     1. –     3. + bright yellow (citrine, lemon)     5. + red
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935. Cortex KC reactivity     1. –     2. + deep yellow     4. + yellow changing to red     5. + red
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936. Cortex PD reactivity     1. –     2. + yellow     5. + red     8. + orange
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937. Medulla K reactivity     1. –     2. + yellow     4. + yellow changing to red     5. + red
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938. Medulla C reactivity     1. –     3. + bright yellow (citrine, lemon)     5. + red
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940. Medulla KC reactivity     1. –     2. + yellow     4. + yellow changing to red     5. + red
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941. Medulla PD reactivity     1. –     2. + deep yellow     5. + red     9. + orange
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956. Ascocarp margin (in section) K reactivity     1. –     5. + red     10. + green
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981. Consistency K-reactive pigments     1. amorphous     2. minutely granular     3. coarsely granular     4. crystallized
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